Date   

Translation request - Poland (Marriage registry, Andrychow, Surnames LUFTGLAS & MOSES) #galicia

Rick Luftglass
 

Hi folks. I need a full translation for my great grandparents' marriage
registration. It's in Polish. I've posted it on ViewMate.

Surnames:

- Samuel LUFTGLASS (then spelled LUFTGLAS) and
- Rosa MOSES.

They were married in Andrychow, Galicia, in what is now Poland, near
Krakow.

I'm particularly interested in locations and notes that may help me
find out more about Samuel's parents, Moses and Hani Luftglass, my
great great grandparents. There are a couple of other towns indicated
on the registration, but between challenges of spelling and uncertainty
about areas, I can't figure out where they are.

It is on ViewMate at the following address:

http://www.jewishgen.org/viewmate/viewmateview.asp?key=VM38521

Please respond via the form provided in the ViewMate application.

Thank you in advance.

Rick Luftglass
Brooklyn, NY
luftr@...


Gesher Galicia SIG #Galicia Translation request - Poland (Marriage registry, Andrychow, Surnames LUFTGLAS & MOSES) #galicia

Rick Luftglass
 

Hi folks. I need a full translation for my great grandparents' marriage
registration. It's in Polish. I've posted it on ViewMate.

Surnames:

- Samuel LUFTGLASS (then spelled LUFTGLAS) and
- Rosa MOSES.

They were married in Andrychow, Galicia, in what is now Poland, near
Krakow.

I'm particularly interested in locations and notes that may help me
find out more about Samuel's parents, Moses and Hani Luftglass, my
great great grandparents. There are a couple of other towns indicated
on the registration, but between challenges of spelling and uncertainty
about areas, I can't figure out where they are.

It is on ViewMate at the following address:

http://www.jewishgen.org/viewmate/viewmateview.asp?key=VM38521

Please respond via the form provided in the ViewMate application.

Thank you in advance.

Rick Luftglass
Brooklyn, NY
luftr@...


Anyone going to Chambers Street (Manhattan)? #general

Paula Blank
 

Is anyone going to the records room at Chambers Street who could look up two records
for me?
1. Death record of Frieda STEIN July 26, 1926 16189 Kings
2. Marriage record of Frieda ROTH and Phillip STEIN Aug 2, 1901 13177 Manhattan

Thanks. I am particularly interested in Frieda's parents names and birthplaces...

Paula Blank
@pjblank


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Anyone going to Chambers Street (Manhattan)? #general

Paula Blank
 

Is anyone going to the records room at Chambers Street who could look up two records
for me?
1. Death record of Frieda STEIN July 26, 1926 16189 Kings
2. Marriage record of Frieda ROTH and Phillip STEIN Aug 2, 1901 13177 Manhattan

Thanks. I am particularly interested in Frieda's parents names and birthplaces...

Paula Blank
@pjblank


1850-51 Revision List for Radun translated #belarus

Jrbaston
 

I'm delighted to announce that the 1850 Revision List for Radun
(and the 1850 Additional Revision List for Radun as well) has been
translated and is now available on the LitvakSIG Lida District
Research Group site <https://lidadistrict.shutterfly.com> on the DATA
page.

Although this data will eventually be publicly searchable in the
LitvakSIG All Lithuania Database and JewishGen Belarus Database,
it is now accessible only to participants in the LitvakSIG Lida
District
Research Group.

You can become part of this group by making a $100US contribution,
which will guarantee you access for five calendar years to Excel files
of all new translations of records for Lida District towns, as well as
files
of all previous translations. To contribute, go to
www.litvaksig.org/contribute
then scroll down a bit to Research Groups and then choose Lida District.

There are 346 individuals in this Revision List, and the vast majority
of them have surnames. I am copying a list of surnames at the bottom of
this message.

Even if you think you had no connections in Radun, it's worth looking at
this list. Eisiskes (Eishishok) is only two miles >from Radun and this
file notes that a number of family branches changed their official
registration >from Radun to Eisiskes in 1858. They are IUDELIOVICH,
IZRALOVICH, OVSEIOVICH, PILIAVSKI, PAIKOVSKI and RUDNITSKI.

In addition to uploading the Radun 1850RL and 1851 ARL file, I've also
uploaded a file that I purchased and had translated some years ago
and donated directly to the All Lithuania Database four years ago --
the Eisiskes 1904 Family List. It contains really valuable information
about 419 households and 5,575 individuals. Even though it has been
searchable, participants in the LitvakSIG Lida District Research
Group can now browse it and search it in ways that can help your
research.

We've now been able to translate the 1850 Revision List for six Lida
District towns -- Eisiskes, Lida Town, Radun, Vasilishki, Voronova and
Zhaludok. We still have six towns to go -- Belitsy, Novy Dwor,
Orlya, Ostrynia, Rozhanka, and Shchuchin.

For those of you who are already part of the LitvakSIG Lida District
Research Group, your support has enabled us to translate this list
so far. If you're able to make an additional contribution, or
contribute for the first time, that will help ensure that we can
get the list translated for the rest of the towns.

Please let me know if you have any questions,

Judy Baston, Coordinator,
LitvakSIG Lida District Research Group

Radun 1850-51 Revision List Surnames
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~



ABRAMOVICH BASHKIEVICH BASIEKIEVICH BASIUKEVICH
BERKOVICH BIELITSKI BOIARSKI DAVIDOVICH
DAVYDOVICH DERDANSKI DOLINSKI DOVYDOVICH
DUBITSKI ELIASHEVICH ELIASOVICH ELIOVICH EPSHTEIN
FISHELIOVICH GELIOLIOVICH GERSHONOVICH GINZBERG
GIRSHKA GIRSHOVICH IANKELIOVICH IOSELIOVICH
IUDELIOVICH IZRALIOVICH KANTOR KAPLAN KHAIMOVICH

KONIAVSKI KOPILIOVICH KOVALSKI LANSKI / [LAPSKI]
LEIBOVICH LEIBOVICH / [GURVICH] LEVIN LEVITOVICH
LINITSKI LIPKUNSKI LITOVICH MASHEVSKI MEIERISKI

MESHELIOVICH MISELIOVICH MIZANSKI MORDUKHOVICH
MOVSHOVICH NEVTALIOVICH / [NEVALOVICH] NOVOTATARSKI
OKHOLITSKI OSHMIANSKI OVSEIOVICH PAIKOVSKI
PETSIULIOVSKI PILIASKI / [PILIAVSKI] PILIAVSKI
PINKUSOVICH
PORTNOI POVILIANSKI PUPKO REZNIK REZNITSKI
REZNIZKI ROGOVSKI RUDNITSKI RYBAK SHELIUBSKI
SHEVITSKI SHMARTOVICH SHMERKOVICH SHMULEVICH
SIMENOVICH SLONOVICH SOLTANSKI SROLIOVICH
STOLNITSKI SVANANOVICH / [SYMANOVICH] SYMENOVICH
TSOFNAS TSYRULNIK VANAGISHSKI / [VANASHINSKI]
VANAGISHSKI / [VONATSKI] VASILISHSKI VOGDOCHINSKI
VOLFOVICH VOLK ZORUKHOVICH


Belarus SIG #Belarus 1850-51 Revision List for Radun translated #belarus

Jrbaston
 

I'm delighted to announce that the 1850 Revision List for Radun
(and the 1850 Additional Revision List for Radun as well) has been
translated and is now available on the LitvakSIG Lida District
Research Group site <https://lidadistrict.shutterfly.com> on the DATA
page.

Although this data will eventually be publicly searchable in the
LitvakSIG All Lithuania Database and JewishGen Belarus Database,
it is now accessible only to participants in the LitvakSIG Lida
District
Research Group.

You can become part of this group by making a $100US contribution,
which will guarantee you access for five calendar years to Excel files
of all new translations of records for Lida District towns, as well as
files
of all previous translations. To contribute, go to
www.litvaksig.org/contribute
then scroll down a bit to Research Groups and then choose Lida District.

There are 346 individuals in this Revision List, and the vast majority
of them have surnames. I am copying a list of surnames at the bottom of
this message.

Even if you think you had no connections in Radun, it's worth looking at
this list. Eisiskes (Eishishok) is only two miles >from Radun and this
file notes that a number of family branches changed their official
registration >from Radun to Eisiskes in 1858. They are IUDELIOVICH,
IZRALOVICH, OVSEIOVICH, PILIAVSKI, PAIKOVSKI and RUDNITSKI.

In addition to uploading the Radun 1850RL and 1851 ARL file, I've also
uploaded a file that I purchased and had translated some years ago
and donated directly to the All Lithuania Database four years ago --
the Eisiskes 1904 Family List. It contains really valuable information
about 419 households and 5,575 individuals. Even though it has been
searchable, participants in the LitvakSIG Lida District Research
Group can now browse it and search it in ways that can help your
research.

We've now been able to translate the 1850 Revision List for six Lida
District towns -- Eisiskes, Lida Town, Radun, Vasilishki, Voronova and
Zhaludok. We still have six towns to go -- Belitsy, Novy Dwor,
Orlya, Ostrynia, Rozhanka, and Shchuchin.

For those of you who are already part of the LitvakSIG Lida District
Research Group, your support has enabled us to translate this list
so far. If you're able to make an additional contribution, or
contribute for the first time, that will help ensure that we can
get the list translated for the rest of the towns.

Please let me know if you have any questions,

Judy Baston, Coordinator,
LitvakSIG Lida District Research Group

Radun 1850-51 Revision List Surnames
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~



ABRAMOVICH BASHKIEVICH BASIEKIEVICH BASIUKEVICH
BERKOVICH BIELITSKI BOIARSKI DAVIDOVICH
DAVYDOVICH DERDANSKI DOLINSKI DOVYDOVICH
DUBITSKI ELIASHEVICH ELIASOVICH ELIOVICH EPSHTEIN
FISHELIOVICH GELIOLIOVICH GERSHONOVICH GINZBERG
GIRSHKA GIRSHOVICH IANKELIOVICH IOSELIOVICH
IUDELIOVICH IZRALIOVICH KANTOR KAPLAN KHAIMOVICH

KONIAVSKI KOPILIOVICH KOVALSKI LANSKI / [LAPSKI]
LEIBOVICH LEIBOVICH / [GURVICH] LEVIN LEVITOVICH
LINITSKI LIPKUNSKI LITOVICH MASHEVSKI MEIERISKI

MESHELIOVICH MISELIOVICH MIZANSKI MORDUKHOVICH
MOVSHOVICH NEVTALIOVICH / [NEVALOVICH] NOVOTATARSKI
OKHOLITSKI OSHMIANSKI OVSEIOVICH PAIKOVSKI
PETSIULIOVSKI PILIASKI / [PILIAVSKI] PILIAVSKI
PINKUSOVICH
PORTNOI POVILIANSKI PUPKO REZNIK REZNITSKI
REZNIZKI ROGOVSKI RUDNITSKI RYBAK SHELIUBSKI
SHEVITSKI SHMARTOVICH SHMERKOVICH SHMULEVICH
SIMENOVICH SLONOVICH SOLTANSKI SROLIOVICH
STOLNITSKI SVANANOVICH / [SYMANOVICH] SYMENOVICH
TSOFNAS TSYRULNIK VANAGISHSKI / [VANASHINSKI]
VANAGISHSKI / [VONATSKI] VASILISHSKI VOGDOCHINSKI
VOLFOVICH VOLK ZORUKHOVICH


Seeking Documents from Krychaw #belarus

Bruce Katkin <bkatkin@...>
 

Would anyone know if documents exist for the town of Krychaw, Mogilev Gubernia
(originally Krichev))

Researching: KATKIN: Mogilev Gubernay;


Bruce Katkin


Belarus SIG #Belarus Seeking Documents from Krychaw #belarus

Bruce Katkin <bkatkin@...>
 

Would anyone know if documents exist for the town of Krychaw, Mogilev Gubernia
(originally Krichev))

Researching: KATKIN: Mogilev Gubernay;


Bruce Katkin


Jewish Heritage Europe Article -List of Jewish Cemeteries in Hungary; Chairmanship of IHRA #general

Jan Meisels Allen
 

In an article posted in Jewish Heritage Europe about Hungarian Prime Minister
Orban launching a program to restore abandoned cemeteries in Hungary, they also
posted about a list of Jewish Cemeteries in Hungary--many of which are abandoned
and neglected. There are more than 1,200 Jewish Cemeteries in Hungary.
See: http://tinyurl.com/pmpldok
Original url:
https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1P9ZuH7NFhQe5btgrATdpPu3WfLheulbIKCWOSwHRSMM/edit#gid=1851819876

Earlier this month Hungary assumed the Chairmanship of the International Holocaust
Remembrance Alliance. The new chairman is Szabolcs Takacs, State Secretary in
the Prime Minister's Office of Hungary. To read more about the
handover of the chairmanship see:
https://www.holocaustremembrance.com/media-room/stories/ihra-handover

The original article by Jewish Heritage Europe may be read at:
http://tinyurl.com/puo8bxk
Original url:
http://www.jewish-heritage-europe.eu/2015/03/23/in-wake-of-vandalization-hungarian-govt-announces-funding-to-care-for-jewish-cemeteries/%E2%80%9D

Jan Meisels Allen
Chairperson, IAJGS Public Records Access Monitoring Committee


JewishGen Discussion Group #JewishGen Jewish Heritage Europe Article -List of Jewish Cemeteries in Hungary; Chairmanship of IHRA #general

Jan Meisels Allen
 

In an article posted in Jewish Heritage Europe about Hungarian Prime Minister
Orban launching a program to restore abandoned cemeteries in Hungary, they also
posted about a list of Jewish Cemeteries in Hungary--many of which are abandoned
and neglected. There are more than 1,200 Jewish Cemeteries in Hungary.
See: http://tinyurl.com/pmpldok
Original url:
https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1P9ZuH7NFhQe5btgrATdpPu3WfLheulbIKCWOSwHRSMM/edit#gid=1851819876

Earlier this month Hungary assumed the Chairmanship of the International Holocaust
Remembrance Alliance. The new chairman is Szabolcs Takacs, State Secretary in
the Prime Minister's Office of Hungary. To read more about the
handover of the chairmanship see:
https://www.holocaustremembrance.com/media-room/stories/ihra-handover

The original article by Jewish Heritage Europe may be read at:
http://tinyurl.com/puo8bxk
Original url:
http://www.jewish-heritage-europe.eu/2015/03/23/in-wake-of-vandalization-hungarian-govt-announces-funding-to-care-for-jewish-cemeteries/%E2%80%9D

Jan Meisels Allen
Chairperson, IAJGS Public Records Access Monitoring Committee


Obtaining Austro-Hungarian Army Records #galicia

Ann Rabinowitz
 

Someone wrote and asked me about obtaining Austro-Hungarian Army
records. There is a site which has much information about this:

A Guide for Locating Austro-Hungarian Military Records by Carl Kotlarchik
http://ahmilitary.blogspot.com/

This resource may assist those of you who want to find these particular
military records.

Ann Rabinowitz
annrab@...


Gesher Galicia SIG #Galicia Obtaining Austro-Hungarian Army Records #galicia

Ann Rabinowitz
 

Someone wrote and asked me about obtaining Austro-Hungarian Army
records. There is a site which has much information about this:

A Guide for Locating Austro-Hungarian Military Records by Carl Kotlarchik
http://ahmilitary.blogspot.com/

This resource may assist those of you who want to find these particular
military records.

Ann Rabinowitz
annrab@...


Re: Towns Mara and Giulesti #romania

R. David Zvi Wieder <dzwieder@...>
 

BS"D

Does anybody know how to get Death records >from Giulesti >from 1905?

In pictures >from Giulesti I found a grave stone that's seems to be
from my great-grand-father.
His Name was Berl(Dov)ben Izchak HUBER passed away December 1905 or
June 1906.

I requested to check on the cemeteries in Mara (Alternate names:
Kravcsfalva, Krachesht, Cracesti, Kracsfalu.

And in Giulesti:
Gyulafalu, Zhulesht, Ludwigsdorf, Maragyulafalva,
Giulesci. 4749/2356
8 miles SSE of Sighetul Marmatiei

Both are villages close to Sighetul Marmetiei- Maramures, Romania and my
grand parents lived there for generations.
I would be very thankful for any other info about these two villages.

Thanks.
All the best
David Zvi Wieder
dzwieder@...

MODERATOR NOTE: Please do not use any words with diacritical marks!
The Lyris server cannot read them, and they only create unintelligible
symbols. Even the decoder that is used cannot read them, creating
great difficulties for the Moderator. Also, it is required that you
use a meaningful subject line.
Thank you, Rom-SIG Moderator on duty


Romania SIG #Romania RE: Towns Mara and Giulesti #romania

R. David Zvi Wieder <dzwieder@...>
 

BS"D

Does anybody know how to get Death records >from Giulesti >from 1905?

In pictures >from Giulesti I found a grave stone that's seems to be
from my great-grand-father.
His Name was Berl(Dov)ben Izchak HUBER passed away December 1905 or
June 1906.

I requested to check on the cemeteries in Mara (Alternate names:
Kravcsfalva, Krachesht, Cracesti, Kracsfalu.

And in Giulesti:
Gyulafalu, Zhulesht, Ludwigsdorf, Maragyulafalva,
Giulesci. 4749/2356
8 miles SSE of Sighetul Marmatiei

Both are villages close to Sighetul Marmetiei- Maramures, Romania and my
grand parents lived there for generations.
I would be very thankful for any other info about these two villages.

Thanks.
All the best
David Zvi Wieder
dzwieder@...

MODERATOR NOTE: Please do not use any words with diacritical marks!
The Lyris server cannot read them, and they only create unintelligible
symbols. Even the decoder that is used cannot read them, creating
great difficulties for the Moderator. Also, it is required that you
use a meaningful subject line.
Thank you, Rom-SIG Moderator on duty


Giulesti Death Records #hungary

dzwieder@...
 

BS"D

Does anybody know how to get Death records >from Giulesti >from 1905?

In pictures >from Giulesti I found a grave stone that seems to be >from my great-grand-father.

His name was Berl (Dov) ben Izchak Huber passed away Dezember 1905 or June 1906

I requested to check on the cemeteries in Mara (Alternate names: Mara [Rom, since 1956], KrÃ¥csfalva [Hun], Krachesht [Yid], CrăceÅ?ti [Rom, before 1956], KrÃ¥csfalu)

And in

Giulesti - GiuleÅ?ti [Rom], Gyulafalu [Hun], Zhulesht [Yid], Ludwigsdorf [Ger], MÃ¥ragyulafalva, Giulesci.
47°49' N, 23°56' E47°49' N, 23°56' E,
8 miles SSE of Sighetu Marmaţiei

Both are villages close to Sighetul Marmetiei- Maramures Romania and my grand parents lived there for generations.

I would be very thankful for any other info about these two villages

Thanks

All the best

David Zvi Wieder
dzwieder@...

Moderator: Illegible place names have been deleted. Upper case fonts
must only be used for surnames and not for place names.


Hungary SIG #Hungary Giulesti Death Records #hungary

dzwieder@...
 

BS"D

Does anybody know how to get Death records >from Giulesti >from 1905?

In pictures >from Giulesti I found a grave stone that seems to be >from my great-grand-father.

His name was Berl (Dov) ben Izchak Huber passed away Dezember 1905 or June 1906

I requested to check on the cemeteries in Mara (Alternate names: Mara [Rom, since 1956], KrÃ¥csfalva [Hun], Krachesht [Yid], CrăceÅ?ti [Rom, before 1956], KrÃ¥csfalu)

And in

Giulesti - GiuleÅ?ti [Rom], Gyulafalu [Hun], Zhulesht [Yid], Ludwigsdorf [Ger], MÃ¥ragyulafalva, Giulesci.
47°49' N, 23°56' E47°49' N, 23°56' E,
8 miles SSE of Sighetu Marmaţiei

Both are villages close to Sighetul Marmetiei- Maramures Romania and my grand parents lived there for generations.

I would be very thankful for any other info about these two villages

Thanks

All the best

David Zvi Wieder
dzwieder@...

Moderator: Illegible place names have been deleted. Upper case fonts
must only be used for surnames and not for place names.


JGSGW: "Galician Portraits: The Story of Jews, Gentiles and Emperors" April 19 #galicia

Tony Hausner
 

JGS of Greater Washington
April Meeting Announcement

Date: Sunday, April 19, 2015
Time: 1:00 PM Schmooze, 1:30 PM Meeting and Program
Location: Beth El Congregation, 3830 Seminary Road, Alexandria, VA
(Directions available at: http://bethelhebrew.org/)
Speaker: Dr. Andrew Zalewski, MD

"Galician Portraits: The Story of Jews, Gentiles and Emperors"

In Galician Portraits, Zalewski, discovers his father's side, who lived
in Galicia, but whose experiences were very different >from his
mother's simply because they were Jewish. Galician Portraits is much
more than a record of one family. It also covers centuries of Jewish
history in the region, before and after Galicia existed. The talk will be
illustrated by archival pictures, documents and maps.

Andrew Zalewski is a cardiologist who lives in the Philadelphia area
with his wife, Margaret. Despite a busy professional life, Andrew
published two books on Galicia and is a frequent speaker at genealogy
conferences where he shares his experiences.

Attention Galitzieners!!!

Exhibit Area for "Our Galician Portraits" on April 19

Do you have Galician roots? Great news! We will have an area for display
at the event.

Have your written a book about your Galician ancestors? Do you have
photographs,
artwork, and family mementos? Have you visited your family's
ancestral home/town/shtetl/cemetery?

We would love to see what you have. We are inviting you to bring materials
from your family history to this exhibit.
Please let us know that you would like to participate and approximately how
much space you will need on a tabletop (linear feet), so that we can arrange
for enough table space. Tell us your name and the Galician family names
or town(s) that you will be representing.

Send your emails to jgsgw@... .

Exhibit committee:
Tony Hausner, chair; Marlene Bishow, Shelley Kellerman Pollero

Tony Hausner
Silver Spring, MD
(primary email address: thausner@...)


Gesher Galicia SIG #Galicia JGSGW: "Galician Portraits: The Story of Jews, Gentiles and Emperors" April 19 #galicia

Tony Hausner
 

JGS of Greater Washington
April Meeting Announcement

Date: Sunday, April 19, 2015
Time: 1:00 PM Schmooze, 1:30 PM Meeting and Program
Location: Beth El Congregation, 3830 Seminary Road, Alexandria, VA
(Directions available at: http://bethelhebrew.org/)
Speaker: Dr. Andrew Zalewski, MD

"Galician Portraits: The Story of Jews, Gentiles and Emperors"

In Galician Portraits, Zalewski, discovers his father's side, who lived
in Galicia, but whose experiences were very different >from his
mother's simply because they were Jewish. Galician Portraits is much
more than a record of one family. It also covers centuries of Jewish
history in the region, before and after Galicia existed. The talk will be
illustrated by archival pictures, documents and maps.

Andrew Zalewski is a cardiologist who lives in the Philadelphia area
with his wife, Margaret. Despite a busy professional life, Andrew
published two books on Galicia and is a frequent speaker at genealogy
conferences where he shares his experiences.

Attention Galitzieners!!!

Exhibit Area for "Our Galician Portraits" on April 19

Do you have Galician roots? Great news! We will have an area for display
at the event.

Have your written a book about your Galician ancestors? Do you have
photographs,
artwork, and family mementos? Have you visited your family's
ancestral home/town/shtetl/cemetery?

We would love to see what you have. We are inviting you to bring materials
from your family history to this exhibit.
Please let us know that you would like to participate and approximately how
much space you will need on a tabletop (linear feet), so that we can arrange
for enough table space. Tell us your name and the Galician family names
or town(s) that you will be representing.

Send your emails to jgsgw@... .

Exhibit committee:
Tony Hausner, chair; Marlene Bishow, Shelley Kellerman Pollero

Tony Hausner
Silver Spring, MD
(primary email address: thausner@...)


How to prove residence in Warszaw at 1936-1938 period ? #poland

Anita Hasson
 

I'am wondering how could I prove,
that my father lived in Warszaw before the war,
at-least in the period of 1936-1938?

Is there any Cenzus of Warszaw inhabitants
by that time - or any administrative list to check?
(No private phone on their name by that time).

Thanking in advance for good advice -
Anita Hasson (Kagan),
Israel.


JRI Poland #Poland How to prove residence in Warszaw at 1936-1938 period ? #poland

Anita Hasson
 

I'am wondering how could I prove,
that my father lived in Warszaw before the war,
at-least in the period of 1936-1938?

Is there any Cenzus of Warszaw inhabitants
by that time - or any administrative list to check?
(No private phone on their name by that time).

Thanking in advance for good advice -
Anita Hasson (Kagan),
Israel.