Date   

Re: Legal source for UK Internments

Tony Hausner
 

My parents who were Jewish were interned on the Isle of Man as well as other relatives, aunts, etc. from 1939 to 1940.  They had escaped from Austria after the anschluss. They were in separate camps as men and women were separated.  My mother kept my father's letter and they have been shared with several museums, etc.  The Isle of Man Manx Museum has extensive materials and an exhibit about both internment periods.  I can put you in touch with staff there if interested.  It would be useful to start a group of persons who's families were interned.  


Re: Legal source for UK Internments

Eva Lawrence
 


I can't give you specific references, as I haven't studied the laws in detail. However,  I don't think that you will find any specific law that legalises those actions. They would have been  covered by a much more general act that gave the executive powers  for any measures that protected the security of the country under all circumstances. Also there was an Official Secrets Act,   so that everything like this was kept under wraps until quite recently.  Yes, I'm sure there was an emergency order from the Home Office, but certainly not a proclamation - secrecy was always a concern, and of course was one factor in Britain's eventual victory. Much of the wartime correspondence is now in the UK National Archives at Kew, and can be trawled through by interested researchers.  In particular, I've seen some an excellent overview of the Home Office interment policy, but I'm afraid I didn't notice the story of the Dunera being mentioned.   In the light of the population's  war-time  sacrifices and deaths from enemy action. it was "just one of those things". On your side of the pond, the phrase "there's a war on" didn't imply quite such a immediate threat. 
Eva Lawrence
St Albans, UK.


How to prove family story about article in the Jewish forward newspaper

sacredsisters1977@...
 

Hi All
One of my ancestral lines is surname Rakovschik from Minsk. One brother named isidore left behind 4 children, back in 1914 to settle in America via Canada.  The other brother David was already settled in Canada years earlier, but did settle in America about 1916.  Isidore apparently got too settled that he forgot about his children which is sad in itself. So the story goes as from what I heard, was that David saw an article in the Jewish forward. The article stated that isidore's children need to be sent for to come to America. Now there has to be truth to this story, for I have the 1926 and 1927 passenger manifest for all 4 kids. The two sons, came one year and the two sisters the other year. They arrived in April of both years. How do I proove this. How can I find this mysterious article in the newspaper. I have no idea what language the article was sent in, but assume Yiddish or English since he was in America. Any suggestions on how to do this. I would love to find this article. All four kids, were in an orphanage I think before coming to America.

Sarah Greenberg
sacredsisters1977@...
USA-CT


Re: More on USCIS Proposes Fee Increases - has this been posted on FB groups, yet? #United States

Marilen Pitler
 

As I had asked in a prior post (I had two typos of which I'm horribly embarrassed), do you know of any petitions? Perhaps the group spearheading this could create one. 
A petition may gain more traction than letter writing. Marilen Pitler, St. Louis


Re: Deportations from France #france #holocaust

Bernard Flam
 

Hi from Paris,
There is often a feeling by foreign people, specially American, that Shoah is forgotten in France and not many places are dedicated to memory and researches.
This feeling could have been true till 70's and also because even now, most our web sites aren't translated in English, nobody is perfect.
But France is able to face its history and concerning French Jews,  a real memory work has been well engaged for decades by numerous associations, institutions and private searchers as I am.
To Jean-Pierre Stroweis's answer, I wish to add :
  • Memorial de la Shoah in Paris is totally comparable to USHMM : a memorial, a museum, a documentation center (created in 1943, even before war's end) and a web site. http://ressources.memorialdelashoah.org/
  • deportees' list has been made by Serge Klarsfeld from nazis convoys lists established directly at deportation center as Drancy : his "memorial book", as "Shoah" movie by Claude Lanzman, are masterpieces for humanity memory of Shoah. 
  • you can search this list directly on Memorial de la Shoah web site, with an advantage to Steve Morse's site : you will find pictures and documents which could be added to each deportee's file by family members :http://ressources.memorialdelashoah.org/rechav_pers.php
  • Serge Klarsfeld compiled also  "Memorial des enfants ", "Children' memorial deported from France" with a page for each of 11.4000 children, including name and picture.
  • as I said, a lot of official / non official institutions / associations have some archives concerning Jews and Shoah in France and you must search one by one : Jean-Pierre Stroweis made this list in English, thank you Jean-Pierre ! https://genealogy.org.il/holocaust-france-resource-guide/
  • Among searchers, we know there are more archives which surely are to be investigated in each "department" archives, department being our territory division since French Revolution, i.e. 95 departments and so 95 archives in continental France...
  • If you know that your ancestors had obtained French nationality, their application file can be copied at French National Archives : between 20 and 40 pages of documents where they told a lot about their family and their life since they left the "old country".
As you can read, this is not because you don't hear or read often from us that we don't fulfill our duty of memory.

khavershaft
Bernard Flam
Archives and history of Medem Center - Arbeter Ring of France (Workmen Circle)
Jewish genealogy detective of Polish roots


Re: Legal source for UK Internments

Jeanette R Rosenberg OBE
 

Dear Judith

 

Actually there are countless sources of useful information about this topic, and not only on the website of the UK National Archives at Kew, although one reference there appears to me to be particularly helpful, setting the context from WW1 onwards: https://blog.nationalarchives.gov.uk/enemy-aliens-great-britain-1914-1919/.

 

This should also be read in the context of the 1905 Aliens Act which replaced the 1836 Act and set up a new system of immigration control and registration and giving responsibility to the Home Secretary for all matters of immigration and nationality.

 

There is a plethora of available reading material, but a good starting point is the excellent but now archived “Moving Here” Jewish Migration History website – see https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.movinghere.org.uk/galleries/histories/jewish/settling/settling.htm#refugees_from_nazism

 

Also, a book that I would particularly recommend is called Living with the Wire, which is now in its 3rd edition Edited by Yvonne M. Cresswell as well as other resources available from the Manx (Isle of Man) Government http://www.isle-of-man.com/manxnotebook/famhist/genealgy/intern.htm

 

You may find other information and background reading in the online Journal of the Association of Jewish Refugees https://ajr.org.uk/

 

I spoke on this subject at the IAJGS Conference in Warsaw in 2018 – my talk was “Incarceration & Legal Restrictions on European Refugees in the UK during the 1930s and 1940s Refugee experiences in the UK before & during WW2”.  You can find a copy of the handout from my conference talk on my blog at https://round2itgenealogy.wordpress.com/2018/08/07/iajgs-2018-incarceration-and-legal-restrictions/

 

Please let me know if you have any further questions.

 

Kind regards

 

Jeanette

Jeanette R Rosenberg OBE

London UK

Jeanette.R.Rosenberg@...


Translation of 1913 death record from Michelfeld, Baden - ViewMate #germany

John Paul Lowens <jplowens@...>
 

I've posted a vital record in handwritten German for which I need a
translation and transliteration. It is on ViewMate at the following address ...
http://www.jewishgen.org/viewmate/viewmateview.asp?key=VM75946

The most vital information in this record is already known but I'd
appreciate a complete transliteration and translation. It should allow me to
to read and understand similar records >from that time period
concerning this great grandfather's wife other members of my family.

Please respond via the form provided on the ViewMate image page.
Thank you very much.

John Paul Lowens, Suburban NYC


German SIG #Germany Translation of 1913 death record from Michelfeld, Baden - ViewMate #germany

John Paul Lowens <jplowens@...>
 

I've posted a vital record in handwritten German for which I need a
translation and transliteration. It is on ViewMate at the following address ...
http://www.jewishgen.org/viewmate/viewmateview.asp?key=VM75946

The most vital information in this record is already known but I'd
appreciate a complete transliteration and translation. It should allow me to
to read and understand similar records >from that time period
concerning this great grandfather's wife other members of my family.

Please respond via the form provided on the ViewMate image page.
Thank you very much.

John Paul Lowens, Suburban NYC


ViewMate - help in deciphering two names in a document in German #germany

Emanuel Blanco <eblanco33@...>
 

Hello,

I've posted a letter in German for which I need help in deciphering
two names that I have underlined. Though the letter is in German, the
names that are hard to decipher may be Israeli/Hebrew names
transcribed to German.
The two names appear twice, but somewhat differently.
It is on ViewMate at the following addresses (two page letter):
http://www.jewishgen.org/viewmate/viewmateview.asp?key=VM75870
http://www.jewishgen.org/viewmate/viewmateview.asp?key=VM75871

Please respond via the form provided on the ViewMate image page.

Thank you very much, Emanuel Blanco


German SIG #Germany ViewMate - help in deciphering two names in a document in German #germany

Emanuel Blanco <eblanco33@...>
 

Hello,

I've posted a letter in German for which I need help in deciphering
two names that I have underlined. Though the letter is in German, the
names that are hard to decipher may be Israeli/Hebrew names
transcribed to German.
The two names appear twice, but somewhat differently.
It is on ViewMate at the following addresses (two page letter):
http://www.jewishgen.org/viewmate/viewmateview.asp?key=VM75870
http://www.jewishgen.org/viewmate/viewmateview.asp?key=VM75871

Please respond via the form provided on the ViewMate image page.

Thank you very much, Emanuel Blanco


Re: Kamenetz Podolsky records #ukraine

Alan Shuchat
 

The URL tinyurl.com/qraxect takes to you to Alex Krakovsky's page but needs to be translated to be used in English. Here's a page that is already in English
tinyurl.com/krakovsky, but this isn't organized by location as nicely as the first link.


Alan Shuchat
Newton, MA

SHUKHAT (Talnoe, Simferopol, Sevastopol, Odessa, Balta (Abazovka), Pogrebishche)
VINOKUR (Talnoe), KURIS (Mogilev-Podolskiy, Ataki, Berdichev)
ZILBERMAN (Soroki, Kremenets), BIRNBAUM (Kamenets-Podolskiy)
KITAIGORODSKI (Zvenigorodka)

MODERATOR'S NOTE: The first url takes you directly to Alex's page, which is updated in
real time. The second one takes you to another organization's page in English for
which there is a lag of some period of time for updates. The Google Chrome browser
will render Alex's page in English. This is the end of this thread.


Ukraine SIG #Ukraine Re: Kamenetz Podolsky records #ukraine

Alan Shuchat
 

The URL tinyurl.com/qraxect takes to you to Alex Krakovsky's page but needs to be translated to be used in English. Here's a page that is already in English
tinyurl.com/krakovsky, but this isn't organized by location as nicely as the first link.


Alan Shuchat
Newton, MA

SHUKHAT (Talnoe, Simferopol, Sevastopol, Odessa, Balta (Abazovka), Pogrebishche)
VINOKUR (Talnoe), KURIS (Mogilev-Podolskiy, Ataki, Berdichev)
ZILBERMAN (Soroki, Kremenets), BIRNBAUM (Kamenets-Podolskiy)
KITAIGORODSKI (Zvenigorodka)

MODERATOR'S NOTE: The first url takes you directly to Alex's page, which is updated in
real time. The second one takes you to another organization's page in English for
which there is a lag of some period of time for updates. The Google Chrome browser
will render Alex's page in English. This is the end of this thread.


Viewmate request - Hebrew gravestone in Bzenec #austria-czech

Michael Gordy
 

I have posted a photo of the grave of Amalie (geb Frisch) Low in
Bzenec. I would be grateful to have a reading of information of
genealogical importance. Full translation not needed. Thank you!

https://www.jewishgen.org/viewmate/viewmateview.asp?key=VM75972

Michael Gordy
Takoma Park, Maryland, USA


Austria-Czech SIG #Austria-Czech Viewmate request - Hebrew gravestone in Bzenec #austria-czech

Michael Gordy
 

I have posted a photo of the grave of Amalie (geb Frisch) Low in
Bzenec. I would be grateful to have a reading of information of
genealogical importance. Full translation not needed. Thank you!

https://www.jewishgen.org/viewmate/viewmateview.asp?key=VM75972

Michael Gordy
Takoma Park, Maryland, USA


Legal source for UK Internments

Richard Gilbert
 

Hi Judith

This link suggests that internment of enemy aliens during WWII was a power derived under UK law from WWI. In 1914 all aliens over the age of 16 had to register their details at local police offices, a requirement of the 1914 Aliens Registration Act (4 & 5 Geo. V c.12


This link to an article about the 1914 & 1919 Aliens Restrictions Acts should explain more also https://blog.nationalarchives.gov.uk/enemy-aliens-great-britain-1914-1919/ .

I hope this helps.

Richard Gilbert
Hertfordshire, England


Master Surname Index Launched for Lyubar Ukraine Revision Lists 1816-1868 #ukraine

Ellen Shindelman Kowitt
 

Introducing the "Lyubar, Ukraine Revision List Indexing Project" <
https://jewishfamiliesofostropol.com/lyubarmatrixindex> conducted by our
friend and partner Deborah Glassman. Based in Washington state, Deb is a
longtime volunteer, translator, and professional historical researcher in
the Jewish genealogy community. She has a personal interest in Lyubar as
well as in nearby Ostropol. We owe her our gratitude and awe as she created
both a "Page Index Finding Aid by Town" to the over 9,000 pages where Lyubar
and 12 other towns appear in 9 different Novograd-Volynsk District Revision
List books (other 12 towns are: Baranivka, Berezdiv, Horodnytsia, Korets,
Krasnostav, Myropil, Nova Chortoryia, Novohrad-Volynskyi City, Ostropol,
Polonne, Rohachiv, and Romaniv) AND she created a "Master Surname Index"
specifically for the 900+ pages where 601 principal Lyubar surnames were
found for Revision Lists and Supplements created between 1816-1868. Deb did
all of this translation and indexing work FREE of charge as a volunteer, and
members of the Lyubar Research Group funded the acquisition of the records.
 
-See the "Lyubar Master Surname Index for Novograd-Volynsk Revision Lists"
at: <https://jewishfamiliesofostropol.com/lyubarmatrixindex>
 -Read Deb?s explanation about this project as well as historical background
information <https://jewishfamiliesofostropol.com/revisionlists-lyubar>.
 -View/download free files of each Novograd-Volynsk District Revision
List (in handwritten Russian) that reside on Alex Krakovksy's Ukrainian Wiki
page
<https://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%84%D0%B2%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%B9%D1%81%D1%8C%D0
%BA%D1%96_%D0%BC%D1%96%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%87%D0%BA%D0%B0#%D0%96%D0%B8%D1%8
2%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%80%D1%81%D1%8C%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%BF%D0%BE%D0%B2%D
1%96%D1%82https://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%84%D0%B2%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%B9%D1%81
%D1%8C%D0%BA%D1%96_%D0%BC%D1%96%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%87%D0%BA%D0%B0#%D0%96%D
0%B8%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%80%D1%81%D1%8C%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%BF%D0%B
E%D0%B2%D1%96%D1%82>.
(Moderator Note - try https://tinyurl.com/qraxect)
-Read my article about the free Novograd-Volynsk District Revision Lists
?Page Index Finding Aid by Town? on Lara Diamond's Jewnealogy Blog
<https://larasgenealogy.blogspot.com/2019/08/town-finding-aid-created-for-no
vohrad.html>.

And stay tuned, we've ordered the 1872-1874 Revision List and will add it to
this project soon!

Ellen Shindelman Kowitt
Erie, Colorado, USA
Lyubar Town Leader
Lyubar KehilaLinks: https://kehilalinks.jewishgen.org/Lyubar/index.html


Ukraine SIG #Ukraine Master Surname Index Launched for Lyubar Ukraine Revision Lists 1816-1868 #ukraine

Ellen Shindelman Kowitt
 

Introducing the "Lyubar, Ukraine Revision List Indexing Project" <
https://jewishfamiliesofostropol.com/lyubarmatrixindex> conducted by our
friend and partner Deborah Glassman. Based in Washington state, Deb is a
longtime volunteer, translator, and professional historical researcher in
the Jewish genealogy community. She has a personal interest in Lyubar as
well as in nearby Ostropol. We owe her our gratitude and awe as she created
both a "Page Index Finding Aid by Town" to the over 9,000 pages where Lyubar
and 12 other towns appear in 9 different Novograd-Volynsk District Revision
List books (other 12 towns are: Baranivka, Berezdiv, Horodnytsia, Korets,
Krasnostav, Myropil, Nova Chortoryia, Novohrad-Volynskyi City, Ostropol,
Polonne, Rohachiv, and Romaniv) AND she created a "Master Surname Index"
specifically for the 900+ pages where 601 principal Lyubar surnames were
found for Revision Lists and Supplements created between 1816-1868. Deb did
all of this translation and indexing work FREE of charge as a volunteer, and
members of the Lyubar Research Group funded the acquisition of the records.
 
-See the "Lyubar Master Surname Index for Novograd-Volynsk Revision Lists"
at: <https://jewishfamiliesofostropol.com/lyubarmatrixindex>
 -Read Deb?s explanation about this project as well as historical background
information <https://jewishfamiliesofostropol.com/revisionlists-lyubar>.
 -View/download free files of each Novograd-Volynsk District Revision
List (in handwritten Russian) that reside on Alex Krakovksy's Ukrainian Wiki
page
<https://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%84%D0%B2%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%B9%D1%81%D1%8C%D0
%BA%D1%96_%D0%BC%D1%96%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%87%D0%BA%D0%B0#%D0%96%D0%B8%D1%8
2%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%80%D1%81%D1%8C%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%BF%D0%BE%D0%B2%D
1%96%D1%82https://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%84%D0%B2%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%B9%D1%81
%D1%8C%D0%BA%D1%96_%D0%BC%D1%96%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%87%D0%BA%D0%B0#%D0%96%D
0%B8%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%80%D1%81%D1%8C%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%BF%D0%B
E%D0%B2%D1%96%D1%82>.
(Moderator Note - try https://tinyurl.com/qraxect)
-Read my article about the free Novograd-Volynsk District Revision Lists
?Page Index Finding Aid by Town? on Lara Diamond's Jewnealogy Blog
<https://larasgenealogy.blogspot.com/2019/08/town-finding-aid-created-for-no
vohrad.html>.

And stay tuned, we've ordered the 1872-1874 Revision List and will add it to
this project soon!

Ellen Shindelman Kowitt
Erie, Colorado, USA
Lyubar Town Leader
Lyubar KehilaLinks: https://kehilalinks.jewishgen.org/Lyubar/index.html


Mount Zion Cemetery seeks old photos and documents

Renee Steinig
 

Mount Zion Cemetery in Queens, which genealogists visit in search of their family histories, is looking for records of its own history.

Cemetery president Mark Stempa recently wrote:

"In the past, people have forwarded to us old photographs taken during family visits to the cemetery. If you have any photos or other interesting documents pertaining to the cemetery, we would appreciate your sharing them with us."

Materials can be sent to PO Box 780355, Maspeth NY 11378-0355. According to Mr. Stempa's letter, the cemetery "will photocopy anything received and return the originals to you promptly."

Renee

Renee Stern Steinig
Dix Hills NY
genmaven@...


Statistics on Conversos - Revisited #sephardic

douglasturner@...
 

This week I received an article "Coming Home after 500 Years" (by Dr. Yvette
Alt Miller, Ami Magazine, 15 Cheshvan 5780/November 13, 2019). It bears on
this topic.

The first few paragraphs of the article are available online but no more
without a subscription.

It describes the experience of a Cuban Catholic girl who felt drawn to
Judaism and underwent an Orthodox conversion.

She is now known as Genie MILGROM (married surname).

She was convinced she had a lost Jewish heritage and after an intense
15-year search she was so successful that she reports the beit din hagadol
in Israel ruled "there should never again be a question that I was born
Jewish. They said that all those who are descended >from me are Jews."

The article reports that the Inquisition "lasted >from 1478 until 1834 and
was enforced in all of Spain's colonies - the smallest Jewish practice could
result in a sentence of death."

The article further states that "historians estimate there are 50 million
people around the world who have roots in the Jewish community of Spain."
It was implied that this number consists of anusim who have been lost to
Judaism.

Anecdotally Ms. Milgrom's ancestral town is Fermoselle, a small town in
western Spain across a river >from Portugal.

In her search she found two mikvah baths in the town and the remains of an
ancient synagogue just outside the town. On the wall of the town's 15th
century church was a small inscription containing a cross with 12 balls at
its foot, a menorah, a sword, and the tetragrammaton in Hebrew.

Despite this she could only trace to a 16th century Catholic heritage in
this town.

On a hunch she looked across the river in Portugal and immediately found
numerous records of Jewish relatives including Inquisition victims who had
been brought up on charges with some relatives killed.

"Perhaps most moving" was learning about a grassy field outside Fermoselle
that residents called El Humilladero, "the humiliator". It was said to be a
place where animals used to be slaughtered, but that does not explain the
name. There is an annual ritual connected to the place in which residents
of Mogadouro, Portugal, across the river come and lay stones on the field.

"'My blood froze,' Genie recalls. Could this be a spot where Jews were
humiliated - tried by the Inquisition and burned at the stake?" Her feeling
rings true but it is hard to believe a quaint little village could have been
such a place of horror.

Ms. Milgrom documents unusual customs and accoutrements unique to her
Catholic family but not to others in their community:

1. Taking some dough when baking bread, wrapping it in foil, and placing it
the back of the oven to burn.

2. Checking eggs for blood spots and discarding any having them.

3. Checking vegetables carefully for bugs using a light.

4. Marrying cousins.

5. Rushing forward just before the moment a bride and groom were to be
married to pin white shawls to their shoulders.

6. A grandmother who was visibly upset at Genie's conversion. "'She kept
telling me it was dangerous to be a Jew.'"

7. Two items bequeathed to Genie by her grandmother after the latter's death
and without explanation, a tiny gold earring with a Star of David in the
center and a hand-shaped hamsa "of the type believed by some Mizrachi Jews
to ward off the ayin hara".

Also documented were practices that could bring one before an Inquisition
tribunal:

1. Not eating pork.

2. Changing the sheets on a Friday.

3. Cleaning one's home on Friday.

4. Not cleaning house on Shabbat.

5. Wearing a clean shirt on Shabbat. [A variation I have heard is donning a
clean white shirt on Friday afternoon.]

It is appalling that simply being reported as doing any one of these five
things could warrant a death sentence.

This sort of religious terrorism could account for there being 50 million
persons around the globe who are lost to Judaism.

Doug Turner


Sephardic SIG #Sephardim Statistics on Conversos - Revisited #sephardic

douglasturner@...
 

This week I received an article "Coming Home after 500 Years" (by Dr. Yvette
Alt Miller, Ami Magazine, 15 Cheshvan 5780/November 13, 2019). It bears on
this topic.

The first few paragraphs of the article are available online but no more
without a subscription.

It describes the experience of a Cuban Catholic girl who felt drawn to
Judaism and underwent an Orthodox conversion.

She is now known as Genie MILGROM (married surname).

She was convinced she had a lost Jewish heritage and after an intense
15-year search she was so successful that she reports the beit din hagadol
in Israel ruled "there should never again be a question that I was born
Jewish. They said that all those who are descended >from me are Jews."

The article reports that the Inquisition "lasted >from 1478 until 1834 and
was enforced in all of Spain's colonies - the smallest Jewish practice could
result in a sentence of death."

The article further states that "historians estimate there are 50 million
people around the world who have roots in the Jewish community of Spain."
It was implied that this number consists of anusim who have been lost to
Judaism.

Anecdotally Ms. Milgrom's ancestral town is Fermoselle, a small town in
western Spain across a river >from Portugal.

In her search she found two mikvah baths in the town and the remains of an
ancient synagogue just outside the town. On the wall of the town's 15th
century church was a small inscription containing a cross with 12 balls at
its foot, a menorah, a sword, and the tetragrammaton in Hebrew.

Despite this she could only trace to a 16th century Catholic heritage in
this town.

On a hunch she looked across the river in Portugal and immediately found
numerous records of Jewish relatives including Inquisition victims who had
been brought up on charges with some relatives killed.

"Perhaps most moving" was learning about a grassy field outside Fermoselle
that residents called El Humilladero, "the humiliator". It was said to be a
place where animals used to be slaughtered, but that does not explain the
name. There is an annual ritual connected to the place in which residents
of Mogadouro, Portugal, across the river come and lay stones on the field.

"'My blood froze,' Genie recalls. Could this be a spot where Jews were
humiliated - tried by the Inquisition and burned at the stake?" Her feeling
rings true but it is hard to believe a quaint little village could have been
such a place of horror.

Ms. Milgrom documents unusual customs and accoutrements unique to her
Catholic family but not to others in their community:

1. Taking some dough when baking bread, wrapping it in foil, and placing it
the back of the oven to burn.

2. Checking eggs for blood spots and discarding any having them.

3. Checking vegetables carefully for bugs using a light.

4. Marrying cousins.

5. Rushing forward just before the moment a bride and groom were to be
married to pin white shawls to their shoulders.

6. A grandmother who was visibly upset at Genie's conversion. "'She kept
telling me it was dangerous to be a Jew.'"

7. Two items bequeathed to Genie by her grandmother after the latter's death
and without explanation, a tiny gold earring with a Star of David in the
center and a hand-shaped hamsa "of the type believed by some Mizrachi Jews
to ward off the ayin hara".

Also documented were practices that could bring one before an Inquisition
tribunal:

1. Not eating pork.

2. Changing the sheets on a Friday.

3. Cleaning one's home on Friday.

4. Not cleaning house on Shabbat.

5. Wearing a clean shirt on Shabbat. [A variation I have heard is donning a
clean white shirt on Friday afternoon.]

It is appalling that simply being reported as doing any one of these five
things could warrant a death sentence.

This sort of religious terrorism could account for there being 50 million
persons around the globe who are lost to Judaism.

Doug Turner