Belarus SIG #Belarus Where are Bickoff and Morelive??? #Belarus

Raymond Peentner <raymond.peentner@...>


The 1911 census tells me my grandparents came >from "Bickoff" in Belarus .
Having always been told they came >from Minsk , I assume that this would be
"Bykhavo" , written phonetically in English.

Similarly one of the children is listed as being born in "Morelive", which
is a little more difficult to pin down. The only idea I had was that it
might be Mogilev .

If anyone could comment on the above I would welcome your views.


Raymond Peentner
Researcher 5881



Belarus SIG #Belarus The JewishGen Blog #Belarus

Dick Plotz

Ann Rabinowitz posted this message about the JewishGen Blog to the
JewishGen Discussion Group and a few SIG lists on Thursday. Avraham
Groll, the JewishGen Administrator at the Museum of Jewish Heritage,
asked that it be posted to all the lists, with Ann's permission, as a
great introduction to the Blog, a new resource for JewishGen.

Dick Plotz
Manager of Mailing Lists
JewishGen, Inc.


In the past few months, I have been writing pieces for the JewishGen
Blog,, that might be too cumbersome or
large for posting on the digests. This gives me the opportunity to be more
expansive and detailed about subjects. This past week, for instance, I have
posted such diverse pieces as "Beginner's Guides", "YouTube: A Genealogical
Tool" and "Searching for Leo Zeitlin".

I hope that many of you will take advantage of looking at the Blog to
view these things. This would include the writings of a number of other
genealogical researchers who are well-known to all of you as regular posters
on JewishGen. Some of these contributors are: Lance Ackerfeld, Jan Meisels
Allen, Warren Blatt, Varda Meyers Epstein, Karen Franklin, Phyllis Kramer,
Jamie Kotler, Anne Feder Lee, David Marwell, Joan Parker, Dick Plotz, Brian
J. Reiser, and Pamela Weisberger.

You may be saying to yourself, "Why do I need to look at another genealogy
site?" I think you will find it beneficial and it will certainly give you
another slant on doing research as well as provide you with up-to-date
information on what is going on in the genealogical world. In addition, the
Blog has the capability to allow you to search for authors, topics and
pieces which appeared in the past. So, if you missed my article in February
entitled "A Jewish Valentine Story: How People Meet", you can easily find
it on the Blog in the February listings or under my name.

In order for the administrators of the Blog to know that you are really
using this valuable resource, you might like to respond in the comments
section which follows each article. You can start discussions there about
the topics broached in the articles.

So, take a chance and take a look. I'm sure you will enjoy the reading
material provided for you on the Blog.

All the best,
Ann Rabinowitz

Belarus SIG #Belarus Vitebsk-BUND #Belarus


from -Esther Rechtschafner

Bund-Vitebsk-I am interested in receiving information about the BUND in
Vitebsk. Please contact me if you have anything (history or family stories).


Belarus SIG #Belarus Need Hebrew-English Translation of Cousin's Memoirs Which Include Experiences Fighting with the Bielski Brothers in the Forests of Belarus, Russia #Belarus

Miriam Klepper <bubbie04-06@...>

My Father's cousin who lives in Netanya, Israel recently sent me a CD of
his Memoirs in Microsoft Word format. He is the last living relative of
my Father's generation who experienced the Holocaust. Although I can
display the 51 page document in Hebrew in Microsoft Word 2002 on my
Windows XP PC, I would appreciate it if someone can translate the text.
I'd be willing to compensate the translator for his her/time.

Cousin Chaim was born in Lida, Belarus, the same town as my Father, and
a segment of the Memoirs deals with how Chaim, his parents, and sister
Raya escaped the first Nazi liquidation of Lida on May 8, 1942, and
ended up living with and fighting with the Bielski brothers in the
forests of Belarus. I was told that they also fought with other
partisans before making their way to Italy, where they got on a boat
headed for Israel as illegals in 1948, and wound up being exiled to
Cyprus by the British.

My late Father, who died in 1965, never spoke to my sister and myself
about the Holocaust, so my cousin's Memoirs would give me some sense of
what happened for the sake of our family's history. It is also important
to have the Memoirs translated as the last generation of living
Holocaust survivors is dying out who were witness to the horrors and
crimes of the Nazis. With all the Historical Revisionism surfacing
across the globe, it is important that documents like these be available
to counter the lies of those anti-Semites. After the document is
translated, I will make copies of the translation and give copies of the
Memoirs to the USS Holocaust Museum, USC Shoah Foundation Institute.
Please contact me privately, if you would like to translate this
important document for me, and tell me what you might charge. Thank you
for your kind attention.

Miriam J. Klepper
Delray Beach, FL, U.S.A.

Belarus SIG #Belarus JewishGen's Basic Genealogy Course #Belarus

phylliskramer1 <phylliskramer1@...>

JewishGen's online "Basic Genealogy" course consists of 8 *text*
lessons, provided online twice weekly, which you can download and
read at your own pace. Topics include organizing and tracking
information, interviewing, Jewish naming conventions, U.S. vital
records, U.S. Census, Ellis Island passenger manifests, and the
JewishGen website and databases. The course includes hundreds of
links to genealogy web sites, and computer hints and tips on how
to best use your computer and browse the Internet. All classes
offer individualized help through an online Forum where you can
post your family information and photographs and get suggestions
and answers to your questions.
The tuition for "Basic Genealogy" is $50, however, if you qualify
for JewishGen's Value Added Services by virtue of a $100 donation
(to our General Fund, within the last 12 months), you are welcome
to enroll at no additional charge (to do so, do not enroll, but
instead, send a note with your JewishGen ID to
jewishgen-education@... and you'll receive
instructions for the waiver).

To enroll and pay online, go to
and select the Basic Jewish Genealogy Course (registration is limited
to 60 students and will close when the class is filled, usually within
a week). Read the details of the course, background of the instructor
and the requirements, then enroll by clicking on the "enroll link".
You will be able to pay for the course online by credit card at our
secure server or by check drawn on a U.S. Bank=20
Once registered you will receive a confirmation email. The first lesson
will be posted on April 1 -- to access it go to and click on "enter class".

Hope you can join us!
Phyllis Kramer
VP, Education, JewishGen, Inc.

Belarus SIG #Belarus Project Launched to Translate Additional Revision Lists for Lida District towns #Belarus


There is some really exciting news for researchers of towns in the Lida =20
District. We will
now be able to get translations of the Additional Revision Lists for our=20
families >from after
1858 late enough for many researchers to connect to the informati=
on we
already have.


There were ten official Revisions the last one being in
1858. These
were financial censuses
and for those families that were listed, they provide a lot of information.

With support from
Lida District researchers, working through LitvakSIG, we had the 1858 list
translated a decade ago, and followed that with translation of the
1875 Alphabetical List of Jewish Males in the Lida District a few years
later (although this list had only patronymics and no ages.)

Official regulations required that Lida District residents be registered in

one of 12 towns of
registration Belitsy, Eisiskes, Lida town, Nowy Dvor, Orlya, Ostrynia,
Radun, Rozanka,
Shuchin, Vasilishki, Voronovo and Zhalukok. Members of our families may have

lived in
smaller villages but were registered in one of these 12 towns. Eleven of
those 12 towns
are today in Belarus (Eisiskes is in Lithuania) but these Additional
Revision Lists are in
the Lithuanian State Historical Archives in Vilnius, so this project is
under the auspices
of LitvakSIG.

During the Lida District Birds of a Feather meeting in 2008 at the IAJGS
Conference in Chicago,
researchers there showed interest in having LitvakSIG get the Additional
Revision Lists for the
Lida District translated.


For Lida town, the list includes 2,412 lines of individuals, covering the
years of 1858 (additional
to the regular list); 1859; 1860; 1862; 1863; 1864; 1865; 1866; 1867; 1868;

1869; 1870; 1871;
1872; 1873; 1874; 1875; 1876; 1877; 1878; 1879; 1880; 1881; 1882; 1883:
1884; 1885:1886;
1887; 1888; 1889; 1890; 1891; 1893; 1895. There are many listings for 1874
but other years vary between several dozen names to just a few.

For Eisiskes, the list includes 1,665 lines of individuals, covering the
years of 1858 (additional
to the regular list): 1859; 1862; 1864; 1868; 1870;1871; 1872; 1873; 1874;
1875; 1878; 1879;
1880; 1881; 1882; 1883; 1884; 1885; 1886; 1887; 1889; 1890; 1891; 1892;
1893; 1894; 1895;
1896; 1898; 1900. The list for 1874 is of significant length, but most
others are much shorter.

A list of surnames found in these two town Additional Revision Lists can
be seen at Lida town:


For information about the frequency of various surnames in these lists,
please write me privately.

The Additional Revision Lists contain the following information: Surname,
first name, father name, relationship to head of household, gender, age,
age at last revision, reason left, year left,
and additional information. This individual information can include the
spouses of daughters in a
household, conversions to Christianity, conscriptions, and relocations to
other areas,

These files will eventually be in the LitvakSIG All-Lithuania Database
(and under the JewishGen All-Country database approach, in the All-Belarus
Database as well),


The process of getting these Additional Revision Lists translated is
different >from that used in previous projects. Paper copies of the
1858 and 1875 lists were acquired by LitvakSIG and they were translated
in the USA. We are no longer able to acquire copies of
lists. Now translators work in the archives in Vilnius to create the
translations. This project involves many different years of lists,
and a translator must go through many files to find the lists of the
Jewish community >from a particular town.

For more information about this project, and how you can participate, please
write me privately,

Judy Baston, Coordinator,
LitvakSIG Lida District Additional Revision List Project
<_jrbaston@... (mailto:jrbaston@...) >

Belarus SIG #Belarus Searching: TRILNICK #Belarus

Sarah Siegler <ss@...>

Hello I am researching the TRILNICK family >from Slonim. My great grandfather
Hyman born in 1863 came to the Uk in 1888 .His father was Morris and mother
Judith. He had 2 brothers and a sister. Abraham lived in Lincoln in the UK
and his other siblings emigrated to the USA.Has anyone any further
information about the family when they lived in Slonim?

Many thanks

Sarah Siegler
MODERATOR NOTE: Please respond privately with family information

Belarus SIG #Belarus Basic Genealogy Course is Fully Registered #Belarus

phylliskramer1 <phylliskramer1@...>

Thanks to all your wonderful JewishGenners who are interested in
our Basic Course. The numbers were overwhelming and we must close
registration immediately. I sent out over 75 vouchers to Value
Added Members and over 15 folks have registerred through our
payment system.

The next class is July 1; please mark your calendars for June 15th
and check back on the education site (
for instructions. Anyone who emailed us for the waiver, and didn't
get into the class, will get an email ahead of time and first
priority in the July 1st class.

Thank you for your understanding...
Phyllis Kramer
VP, Education, JewishGen, Inc.

Belarus SIG #Belarus 29th IAJGS Conference Alert #Belarus

David Mink

Last reminder that the deadline for eligibility in the drawing for a free
room at the Sheraton during the conference week - to be eligible you must
register for the conference and the hotel on or before March 28. Please go
to and click on the Registration button to learn more
details about this great prize. The drawing will be held during the first
week of April and the winner notified shortly thereafter.

Other conference news: The preliminary program will be on the website about
April 1. You will be impressed and excited by the many wonderful sessions
that will take place.

--Click on the Research Opportunities button to see a wonderful Philadelphia
Resource Guide. This is must reading to learn about all the resources
available for carrying out research while there.
--Click on the button for Jewish History of Philadelphia to learn about the
rich Jewish history of the city.
--Click on the button for Sightseeing so you can start to plan which of the
many museums, historical sites and other activities you want to enjoy while
in Philadelphia.
--Click on the Getting the Most out of the Conference button for a download
that you are sure to find helpful.
--Click on the Conference Discussion Group button and join this group so you
can ask questions, share information, and learn more.
--Click on all the buttons and spend some time reading all that is there -
You will see that this is a conference you don't want to miss! Yes, more
information is added as we get it - so do check back often.

We look forward to seeing you in Philadelphia!

Co-Chairs of this IAJGS and JGSGP co-hosted conference:
Anne Feder Lee
David Mink

Belarus SIG #Belarus Cancellation of March 22, 2009 Program/Jewish Genealogical Society of Michigan #Belarus


Due to the illness of the speaker, Pamela Smith, the Jewish Genealogical
Society of Michigan (JGSMI) has had to cancel its program"Advanced Googling for
Genealogical Purposes", which was to have been on Sunday, March 22, 2009,at
the Holocaust Memorial Center in Farmington Hills, Michigan. The program will
be rescheduled.

Judith Koenig Fox
West Bloomfield, Michigan
VP Publicity JGSMI

Belarus SIG #Belarus Searching for Location of Khorosh #Belarus


Hello all,
I recently received some information gotten >from the archives in Brest,
Belarus about my PERELMUTER family. I just found out that before living in
Brest, they previously lived in a town called Khorosh in the Bialystok uzed of
Grodno gubernia. This was before 1854. I have tried to find this town on the
shtetl finder and have been unable to pinpoint which one it is. Does anybody
know or does anybody have family >from there? Was it populated with Jewish
families? This particular family had strong ties to Zelva and Volkavysk, so I
am wondering if the town is near there.

Also, I read that in 1897 a younger brother named David moved to Lodz of
Petrokovskaya gubernia. He had a son named Nachman PERELMUTER who had been
living in Lodz but then moved to Volkavysk in 1939 and was considered a refugee.
He and his family were "relocated" to a village called Vozhemka of
Vologodskay oblast. Does anyone know where that is? I am assuming this
family was killed in the Holocaust. My branch of the family tree luckily got out between

Thank you for your help.
Rishy Savin
Miami, FL

Belarus SIG #Belarus ViewMate is back! #Belarus

Warren Blatt

JewishGen's ViewMate program, which has been down for
several months for the correction of technical problems,
is once again up and running.

ViewMate can be accessed via the JewishGen home page
under "Projects", or directly at
< >.

ViewMate is the most convenient way to post images which
you would like to identify, translate, ask questions about,
etc. For a full explanation, see the ViewMate site.

Thanks to Gary Sandler, our technical guru, and Sam Eneman,
our ViewMate administrator, for their hard work in restoring
ViewMate to service, and thanks to all JewishGen users for
your patience during this time.

If you had submitted images previously, and they do not
appear in the "To View" section or in your "My ViewMate
Approved Postings", please submit them again.


Warren Blatt
Managing Director, JewishGen

Belarus SIG #Belarus Searching:Zelig RATNER from Slutsk (second revision) #Belarus


Dear All,

On behalf of an Immigrant >from the former Soviet Union, I am looking
for any information about Zelig RATNER or his family >from Slutsk in
Belarus who immigrated to the US. His father's name was Israel. He

Probably left before 1921. His younger sister, Anna Ratner, was born

in 1896... and did not immigrate. There were several other siblings.

Thanks to a helpful genner, we have the following pieces of evidence.

1. Zelik RATNER and his wife and daughter arrived in San Francisco
California in 1915 aboard the Mongolia >from Yokohama Japan. Their
last permanent residence was in Minsky [sic] Russia where Selik's
father Zanvil Ratner is living. In several places, "NY" is written
across their records, also a date in 1939 (possibly a naturalization
date?) His wife's name is given variously as Genesha, Genesta,
Genester, etc. Selik is also written as Selkirk.... Sima is clearly
stated to be a daughter, age 1 year, 3 months (DOB June -July 1914)

2. In 1918 Zelick Ratner is living in Bayonne with his wife Gussie. He

is working for "Prudence Insurance Co (should be "Prudential") He was =20=

born in Russia. source is draft registration card.

3. The 1920 census is difficult to read, but it seems that Selig and
his wife and **son were all born in Russia and all came to the US in
1915. He is a salesman for dental supplies. The son sam might be a
typo for Sema

4. IN his 1942 his wwII US Draft registration card Here his wife is
clearly written as Cissieand he lived at 4704 13th Avenue Brooklyn.
worked for Amtorg and was born in Slutsk on Nov 20, 1988

5. This is a possible marriage for Sima (Seema)
Ratner Seema May 27 1934 cert # 7207 Kings married
Samuel L JACK

If you know anything about this family, or can help find the
descendants of Sema Ratner and Samuel Jack, please let me know.

A Zelig Ratner was mentioned in the Slutsk Yizkor book. My translation

and transliteration follows:

Zelig Ratner
Born in Slutsk 1885. Wrote Yiddish poems (leider) and also edited in
New York the magazine Russain Galos (Russian Voice).

I will also transliterate the Yiddish: Zelig Ratner. Geboren iSlutsk

in 1885. Geshreeben Yiddishe leeder un oych redegeert in new york
das zhournal "ruski-gawlas"(Rushishe Stimme).

Presumably this is the Zelig Ratner that I seek.


Aaron Ginsburg
Sharon, MA

Researching: Dokshitsy, Belarus: Kusinitz, Cirlin, Ginsburg;
Gorodishche (Cherkassy District), Ukraine Pokross

Belarus SIG #Belarus Home of the Daughters of Jacob, Bronx, N.Y. #Belarus

Myrna Siegel <myrna.s@...>

Does anyone know if there are records circa 1910 to 1934 available
for the "Home of the Daughters of Jacob" that was located 586 E. 140th
St. in the Bronx, N.Y.?

I am trying to get information about Lazar Cohen who was residing
there possibly prior but for sure >from 1919 until his death in 1934.

It is interesting to note that the 1920 Census lists the residents of
this home as "inmates".

Myrna Siegel
Wilmette, IL

Belarus SIG #Belarus 1874 List of Jewish Males in Lyakhovichi Completed #Belarus

Family Tree Expert <Expert@...>

Fellow Belorussians:

We are excited to announce the translation and databasing of the 1874 "List
of Jewish Males" for the shtetl of Lyakhovichi (Lachowicze, Lechovich,
Lechowitz,) in the former Minsk Gubernia. The list records 3,058
individuals registered in Lyakhovichi and its surrounding villages, residing
in 906 separate households, having over 350 different surnames between them.

Grouped by family units, each entry contains the individual's surname, given
name, relationship to the head of the household, his age both as shown in
his papers and by his appearance, the date of the last revision (census) he
was included in, his place of registration, address and landlord. When an
individual was out of town, the List gives an indication of where he has
moved to (when known). Prepared primarily for recruitment and taxation
purposes, the List is a goldmine for genealogical information for
researchers interested not only in Lyakhovichi but also in nearby towns,
such as Nesvizh, Kletsk, Novo Myzh and Baranovichi.

*** A list of surnames found in this list can be found on the website's
homepage at - ***

The List will eventually be posted on the Lyakhovichi Website but if you
are interested in having an early sight of it or acquiring it, please
contact me, at Expert@...

For more information about the SIG and its projects, please check out our
extensive Website at

Gary Palgon
Atlanta, GA

Belarus SIG #Belarus Thanks for Responding to Call for Hebrew-English Translation of Netanya Cousin's Memoirs of Holocaust (Including Fighting with Bielski Brothers) #Belarus

Miriam Klepper <bubbie04-06@...>

I would very much like to thank everyone who responded to me privately
regarding the Hebrew-English translation of my Father's cousin's
Memoirs. I apologize for not responding sooner due to two minor
surgeries last week. Yesterday when I thought I'd get to finally looking
through my e-mail I had to spend the day resurrecting my Router (aka the
Phoenix) >from the Ashes in order to get the Internet to work. There were
116 e-mails in my Inbox including those >from Jewishgen & Belarus SIGs
either offering to do the translation for free or for a fee, or for a
small donation to a worthy charity. Some responders suggested that I
split up the 51 page document and have it translated by several people.
I will decide shortly which is the best route to go on this. Thanks
again for responding, and hopefully in a short time I will be able to
share the translation with both Jewishgen and Belarus SIGs and
organizations devoted to the Memory of the Holocaust.

Miriam Klepper
Delray Beach, FL 33446

Belarus SIG #Belarus A shtetl named Shutsin? #Belarus

David Gordon

I recently had an old family postcard translated and it made reference
to my ggf visiting the town/shtetl of Shutsin before he emigrated to
the U.S. in 1906. He lived in Lapichi (southeast of Minsk, on the
Svisloch River) and the card was >from family in nearby Starye Dorogi.
I can't find anything plausible on Shtetl Finder or on my maps. Can
anyone help me locate this place? Thanks.

David Gordon
tiganeasca at
Chicago, IL
HORWITZ: Smolevichi, Lapichi GORDON: Butrimonys
GEBALOVITCH: Borisov, Slavien? LEVIN: Butrimonys
DRAZIN: Bobruisk BENENSON: Borisov,HURWITZ: Gomel GETZOV: Smolevichi?

Belarus SIG #Belarus Searching for Rabbi AVERBUCK from Gorodki, Belorus #Belarus

Robert Dupuis <R.Dupuis@...>

Dear Genners,

It was told into my maternal family, that one of our ancestor's was Rabbi AVERBUCK,
married with his wife KEILE/KEYLA and lived into the middle/late 18th century
in the town Gorodki, Belorus. When Rabbi AVERBUCK was a widower, he took the
name of his wife as his family name: KEIL(E)MANN.
Does anybody know something about a Rabbi Averbuck, who lived in Gorodki, Belorus? ELIAS ben AVERBUCK/ABRAHAM KEILMANN, a child of Rabbi AVERBUCK went at the end of the 18th century to the village Schlock/Sloca, Duchy of Courland. His decendance's were living in Riga, Latvia, til the German occupation in 1941.


Robert Dupuis, Berlin, Germany

Belarus SIG #Belarus Bolinslz, Minsk??? #Belarus

Johanna Marshall <marshalljohanna@...>

Dear Belarus SIG'ers

One of the documents for my grandfather indicates that he was born in
Bolinslz, Minsk.

Bolinslz is not listed as a raion or a subraion of Minsk.

Does anyone know what Bolinslz is?

Johanna Marshall
Washington D.C.

Belarus SIG #Belarus Conference Program Now Online #Belarus

David Mink

Have you decided to attend this year's Conference on Jewish
Genealogy? Not yet? Well maybe this will help you make that
difficult decision. The preliminary Conference Program is now
online. Go to the Conference homepage at
and click on "Program" >from the menu.

There is something for everybody: >from Advanced Googling to
Yiddish Theater; >from Nancy Adelson to Robert Zavos; and many
topics and presenters in between.

Programming starts on Sunday at 9 am with a beginner's track of
programs - 3 hours on beginner's strategies, 2 hours on starting
your Philadelphia research, a local (Pennsylvania, Delaware, New
Jersey) Repository Fair, and a program on Jewish surnames. All
this to help jump start your research activities during the
upcoming week. Sunday will end with our Keynote Speaker, Father
Patrick Desbois. He is best known for his work in searching for
and uncovering mass graves in Ukraine and for his book, "The
Holocaust by Bullets." His keynote address will be followed by a
Q&A period and a reception, where Father Desbois' book will be
sold and autographed.

Each day is packed with interesting presentations on many
subjects as well as SIG programs, over 25 Birds-of-a-Feather
meetings - including firsts for Jewish agricultural colonies
in southern New Jersey,the Paterson, NJ area, and smaller
gatherings for attendees with roots in the old Jewish
neighborhoods of Philadelphia (which are not yet on the
schedule), proven and new/exciting computer workshops, and
some interesting new workshops on Jewish food, document
preservation, photo identification (with the Photo Detective,
Maureen Taylor), and help to decipher Russian and Polish records.

On Monday, Philadelphia's main Jewish Museum, the National Museum
of American Jewish History, will sponsor two lectures by the pre-
eminent scholar on the history of American Jews and Judaism,
Brandeis University Professor Jonathan Sarna. Sarna will speak on
"Jewish Settlement Patterns in the US: Why Jews Ended Up Where
They Did" and in the evening plenary session on "An Old Faith in
the New World: 350 Years of American Judaism."

Tuesday evening will include the annual JewishGen program with a
preview of future developments and projects followed by Jewish
Genealogy Game Night, produced by Conference veterans Ron Arons
and Pamela Weisberger. This event will entertain you, and don't
be surprised to see Litvaks vs. Galitzianers Family Feud amongst
the shows.

We are working on the Wednesday evening program, but it will be
exciting and interesting.

The daily programs have much to enjoy and singling out any small
group of them will do an injustice to those not mentioned, but two
special guests >from overseas deserve mention:

Thanks to ROM-SIG, for the first time ever, an Archivist >from the
National Archives of Romania will visit our Conference. He is not
any Archivist; he is Dorin Dobrincu, the Director General of the
Archive system.

Thanks to Miriam Weiner's Routes to Roots Foundation and IAJGS, a
representative >from the State Committee on Archives of Ukraine,
Deputy Director Olga Muzychuk, will be speaking for the first time
since 2006.

Take some time, review the program, decide which programs you would
like to attend and then register for the Conference. Go directly to to register.
You will not regret your decision. Early registration discount ends
April 30.

See you in Philadelphia this August.

Mark Halpern
Mark Heckman
Program Chairs
Conference discussion group
Conference Facebook group