Estates #courland #latvia


Martha Lev-Zion <martha@...>
 


Does anyone know anything about the Kurmahlen estate? I know the word
"mahler" means furniture in Danish!?
Lorraine, Kurmahlen was also a former knight's estate. It is quite near
Goldingen [Kuldiga] and was included in that community for all
administrative purposes. In Latvian today, it is called Kurmale, with a
straight line over the "u". It just so happens that my own great
grandmother Martha LIEBERTHAL, after whom I am named, was born in Kurmahlen.

Were all these 'estates' of similar origin to that described by Martha?
No. There were a large variety of estates, including private ones, crown
ones, estates of pastors, private forests and so forth

If
these estates were 'knight's' estates, who granted these to these
'knights'? (and when?). Prussian kings, Latvian barons/kings?
One needs to remember that Courland was founded by Teutonic Knights. The
Latvian was the lowest man on the totem pole. They were virtual serfs of
the Germans.

Also how , when, why did Jewish people live on these estates - as tenants
or indentured workers, or perhaps estate managers in some instances?
It was specifically against the laws of the principality for Jews to live
in the land, but there is epigraphic evidence that Jews did in fact live
there as early as the 15th century. The early Jews came up >from Germany at
the invitation of the estate owners and managed the marketing of the estate
owners' goods while importing into the area those things which were not
available but which the owners missed von der Heimat. After Couland was
sliced away >from Poland [long story which merits some reading!] and given
over to the Czar of Russia, every attempt by the Russians to remove the
Jews was met with resistance by the local aristocracy. Not that they loved
us, but they needed us. Many Jews were in Courland illegally, which is to
say that they came to the area after Russia took it over. Most of those
scratched a living any way they could and were frequently one step ahead of
various efforts to expel them. As always, a lot depended on our paying
double and quadruple taxes; bribes; and so forth.

I would like to correct one thing that Constance said. I am not an "expert"
on estates - but may know more than some due to a bit of in depth research.
But thank you for the compliament, Constance!

Martha [in Israel]


Martha Lev-Zion <martha@...>
 

Andy Lasda wrote:

I am most interested to learn if their is a directory of estates or a book
on life on these estates during that time. Any clues will be appreciated.
There is a two volume set called VERZEICHNIS LETTL=C4NDISCHER ORTSNAMEN
compiled by H. Meyer and G. v. Pantzer. It was published in 1938 by Hans
=46eldmann in Riga. One volume is written in Gothic German, giving an
enormous number of Estates, private farms, and so forth and indicating in
what community they are [were] located. The second volume is the Latvian
one and >from the hints given in the German volume, one can usually find the
modern day names for the same places. It is very time consuming and
necessary to cross reference to be sure that one is talking about the same
place.

Another source I have used is the 1912 Courland Addressbuch. It too is
printed in Gothic script. At the back there is an alphabetic list of
"flecken" or little settlements, private estates, pastoral farms and
forests and the nearest larger corresponding community.

If anyone knows of a book about life on the estates in the 19th century,
aside >from individual articles, I would also be interested to know about it!

I hope this helps you, Andy. Martha


Martha Lev-Zion <martha@...>
 

Harold Arkoff wrote:

I, too, have some old documents that shows my grandfather, Abram
Berelovitch Lurie (Lurye) lived on an Estate in Latvia >from 1878 til 1894,
The Post-Drogen estate in the Hasenpoth district of sbdistrict of Kalvene. I
have been told it is now called LielDrogas or Atzele. He was a shochet.
(Yevreyskiy reznik). Does anybody know or where can I find out more about
POst-Drogen estate, etc. Who owned it? How big was it? Also mentioned in
the documents are several peasants "Fritz Fritzev Veidman" and Klav Andreyev
Zivert". Also farms "Adzel" and "Shadin". Also "Andrey Girtov Senit" and
his farm "Svaya". Are any of these places familiar to anybody. Thanks.
I must apologize for not answering sooner, Harold! I was too involved in
family affairs. I beg your pardon.

Post-Drogon was a former Knight's estate. In German, it was in the Kalwen
area which was in the Kreis Hasenpoth, Aizpute area of today. The community
today is called Kalvenes in Latvian. Lieldroga is the name of the specific
estate today, but I could find no note of something called Atzele. It was
not one of your larger estates. Perhaps if you wrote to the Archives, they
might know something specific about the estate in your grandfather's day.
I wish I could help you more!

Martha


Knud and Lorraine Bertelsen <klb@...>
 

Dear Martha and fellow Courland Researchers

For some reason I haven't received any Courland Digests for a long time and
thought that nothing was being discussed. Anyway, I have now resubscribed
and have just received my first Courland digest for a while in which the
question of Estates was raised. I found the answers to this query fascinating.

My GGF's GF (David Behr ARONIS b.ca. 1800) and his family were living on
the Kurhmahlen Estate in/near Kuldiga ca. 1834 before moving to Libau.

Does anyone know anything about the Kurmahlen estate? I know the word
"mahler" means furniture in Danish!?

Were all these 'estates' of similar origin to that described by Martha? If
these estates were 'knight's' estates, who granted these to these
'knights'? (and when?). Prussian kings, Latvian barons/kings? I haven't
the faintest idea of how Courland was governed - except that I think it was
called the Duchy of Kourland - possibly under the Prussians?

Also how , when, why did Jewish people live on these estates - as tenants
or indentured workers, or perhaps estate managers in some instances?

Lorraine Bertelsen
Boho downunder


Researching :
Maternal Family :
SHTEINGOER/SHTEINGAUER/STEINHAUER Vilna,Canada/USA,S.A.,Paris.
STEINHAUER-FOX/FINEBERG, STEINHAUER-DAROFF/DROZ Vilna/Canada/USA.
STEINHAUER-SNIPISHKER Vilna
LAPIDUS Podbrodze/Paberze/Vilna/Libau/Paris/USA/Israel/South Africa.
LAPIDUS/ROIZENBLAT/MORGULIS Chotin/Vilna/Odessa/USA/Israel.
LAPIDUS-STUCER/STUTZER Podbrodze/Vilna/Grodno/frmr USSR/Siberia?
LAPIDUS-PEREWOSKI/ADELSKI Vilna.
LAPIDUS-ZIPKIN/SILBER Vilna/Libau/Palestine/Paris/S.A./USA.
LAPIDUS-ARONIS/POLLACK Vilna/Odessa/Montreal/Australia
LAPIDUS-KURITZKES Vilna
KOUGEL Lithuania. YAKERBOVICH (Russian Duma).
ARONIS/PALM/REISLER-LINDEMAN/FEINSHTEIN/WULFSON/MENDELSON
Hasenpoth/Kuldiga/Mitau/Riga/Libau/USA.
LANDO/KOFMAN/MORGOULIES/MORGULIS Odessa.
Family of my Step-Father :
ZIPPER/WEISS/SCHILLER/STEINER/RECHT/EHRLICH Zbaraz,
Galicia/Bohemia/Vienna/Shanghai/Canada/USA/Australia.
Family of my step-Grandfather :
GOLD/FUCHS Papa,Hungary/Vienna>London/DUNERA/Australia/USA.
GOLD/RADAN Vienna/Zagreb.
Family of my step-Great Grandfather :
POLIAK/POLLACK/RATZ/STARKMAN/BARSKY
Schargorad/Mogilev-Podolya/Vinnitza/Odessa/Montreal/Germany/Siberia/Harbin/Australia
and many others
N.B. Families of my step-Father, step-GF and step-GGF are totally
unrelated to each other.