Use of Middle Names Israel and Sarah on German 1939 Minority Census #germany


Fritz Neubauer
 

Susan Meehan wrote:
I am doing research in preparation for putting in a claim with the
Swiss Dormant Bank Accounts commission. To that end, information on
the middle name is critical, as the name on the list is a common one,
Alfred DEUTSCH, but has a middle initial of M.
I found my relative, Alfred DEUTSCH, on the Hamburg 1939 German
Minority Census, along with a bunch of other relatives. However, his
middle name according to the census list, is Israel, and that of his
wife, Henriette, is Sarah. That discouraged me at first. But then I
noticed, while traversing through the microfilm that a great number
of clearly Jewish names in Hamburg all had the middle name of Israel
if they were male, and Sarah if they were female. Is this possibly a
generic middle name? Was it done as a protest, and if so, was it true
all across Germany? Why was this done?
Dear Susan,
it was NOT a protest, but one of the laws arising >from the Nuremberg
laws stated that starting on August 17, 1938 every German Jew was
*** forced *** to add "Israel" or "Sara" as middle names to their names to make
their Jewishness obvious. These additional names were inserted into all
passports, identity cards and even restrospectively into birth
certificates - they were *** not *** their real names but names forced upon them
by the Nazi authorities - in the case of survivors these names were
removed again after the war. With kind regards

Fritz Neubauer, North Germany <fritz.neubauer@uni-bielefeld.de>


Susan Meehan <smeehan@...>
 

I am doing research in preparation for putting in a claim with the
Swiss Dormant Bank Accounts commission. To that end, information on
the middle name is critical, as the name on the list is a common one,
Alfred DEUTSCH, but has a middle initial of M.

I found my relative, Alfred DEUTSCH, on the Hamburg 1939 German
Minority Census, along with a bunch of other relatives. However, his
middle name according to the census list, is Israel, and that of his
wife, Henriette, is Sarah. That discouraged me at first. But then I
noticed, while traversing through the microfilm that a great number of
clearly Jewish names in Hamburg all had the middle name of Israel if
they were male, and Sarah if they were female. Is this possibly a
generic middle name? Was it done as a protest, and if so, was it true
all across Germany? Why was this done?

BTW, my Alfred DEUTSCH spelled his last name in great big letters, as
if trying to tell the Nazis that his name indicated he was a real
German! Sad, isn't it?

Susan Meehan smeehan@tcs.wap.org, Washington, DC

MODERATOR NOTE: I believe that this subject has been covered before in the
GerSIG Forum. While you wait for replies >from other members, why not check
our archives at:
http://www.jewishgen.org/wconnect/wc.isa?jg~jgsys~sigspop
I had success using the context "Israel near Sarah" MOD1


David Seldner
 

Dear all,

I also noticed during my research that some "Israels" and "Sarahs"
had been removed, others not. The answer why this is so is relatively
simple. There had to be a reason to change the name again. In
some cases survivors requested the change of name, in other
cases descendants asked for it (like in the case of my family).
And, as I was told in one Standesamt, it had happened that the
chief of the Standesamt had given the order to do it.

David Seldner, Karlsruhe, Germany


Dick Plotz
 

Fritz Neubauer wrote in response to Susan Meehan:
These additional names were inserted into all
passports, identity cards and even restrospectively into birth
certificates - they were *** not *** their real names but names forced upon
them by the Nazi authorities - in the case of survivors these names were
removed again after the war.
I have seen many notations in birth records of the imposition of the
additional names and of their removal. What is remarkable to me is
that the removal seems to follow no rhyme or reason. I've asked here
about what prompted the notations of removal, and received no
definitive answer. What I do know is that many people who did not
survive nevertheless had a notation of removal on their birth records,
and that this was not a matter of a Standesamt or archive official
simply paging through the records and entering a removal note on each
record with an additional name; a single record book might contain
records with and without removal notes, haphazardly scattered through
the Jewish records.

My best guess is that perhaps someone tried to remove the added names
by recalling who the Jewish residents were and about when they were
born and looking them up in the indexes, or maybe just by looking for
Jewish names in the indexes. In the first case, the presence of a
removal note would indicate that the person had been remembered, which
might possibly be helpful to a genealogical researcher; in the second
case, it would be of no importance at all.

Does anyone have more specfic information? My experience is with
Napoleonic-style narrative records >from the Rheinland.

Dick Plotz Providence RI USA


Zeev Raphael <zeevra@...>
 

Dear Susan and Fritz,
Fritz Neubauer wrote:
"... it was NOT a protest, but one of the laws arising >from the Nuremberg
laws stated that starting on August 17, 1938 every German Jew was
*** forced *** to add "Israel" or "Sara" as middle names to their names to make
their Jewishness obvious. These additional names were inserted into all
passports, identity cards and even restrospectively into birth
certificates - they were *** not *** their real names but names forced upon them
by the Nazi authorities - in the case of survivors these names were
removed again after the war."

Having had this law applied to myself, I can confirm Fritz's comments.
My name (in those days) was "Heinz", and I thus became "Heinz Israel".
I can produce several documents illustrating this.

I have two comments:

1. True, the law was issued on August 17, 1938. However it came into force,
only "starting on January 1, 1939". See text of the decree, at the
website cited below or contact me for the text.

2. Jews with authorized and clearly Jewish names, did NOT have to adopt
the additional name. Thus my father Jacob did not have to add
"Israel" to his name. He did so nevertheless, and became "Jacob Israel"...
Best wishes, Zeev Raphael, Haifa e-mail: zeevra@aerodyne.technion.ac.il


Downloaded from: http://www.axishistory.com/index.php?id=6289

Second decree on law concerning change of first and last names (Zweite
Verordnung zur Durchf?hrung des Gesetzes ?ber die Aenderung von Familiennamen und
Vornmen)
Gist of the law: Forcing Jews to adopt the names "Israel" and "Sara".
Document Number: 2873-PS
Date: 17 Aug 1938
Reichsgesetzblatt-Page: I.1044
Signed by: Frick


Christof Eberstadt <cpa-eberstadt@...>
 

Dear all,

To my best knowledge, no "Gutmensch" (as we say over here today, meaning
"good man") [*** see MOD NOTE below] is responsible for the removal of the
additonal "names", and much more no remembering of murdered or expelled people
(nobody wanted to remember). The decision to remove the notations was imposed to
the city officials by the temporary military governments in German
occupied countries soon after the end of WW II. I do know that >from the
American sectors, for instance Bavaria and Baden-Wurttemberg (Mannheim).

In the case of my relative Anna ANSBACHER-EBERSTADT her birth certificate
bears a stamp with the Mannheim Standesamt name change notation: "Zu Nr.
xxx. Mannheim, den 25. April 1939. Gemaess ยง2 der 2. Verordnung zur
Durchfuehrung des Gesetzes ueber die Aenderung von Familiennamen u.
Vornamen vom 17. August 1938 hat die Nebenbezeichnete durch Erklaerung
vom 28. Dezember 1938 mit Wirkung vom 1. Januar 1939 ab zusaetzlich den
weiteren Vornamen Sara angenommen. Der Standesbeamte xxx". Another stamp
says: "Auf Grund des Artikels II des Gesetzes Nr. 1 der Amerikanischen
Militaerregirung ist obiger Randvermerk geloescht. Mannheim, den 27.
Maerz 1947. Der Standesbeamte, in Vertretung xxx".

Nevertheless I found in the Fuerth archive at least (according to my
memory) one ANSBACHER, which had been forgotten and has to bear the
additional "name" in eternity...

Christof Eberstadt Germany <cpa-eberstadt@t-online.de>