Zhitomir area census puzzles #general

Pavel Bernshtam <pavelb@...>

I just received >from Zhitomir archive census and birth records on
KELMAN surname >from Chervonoe shtetl. These records are written by
terrible handwriting, and sometimes are a little puzzle.

Let's start >from the first avaiable census: Revizskaya Skazka 1816.
We see here following data

Ios Zelmanovich KELMAN polyak - [age in 1811 - was ommited], [age in
1816 - 36]

My questions:
What means "polyak" (the first letter seems to be small!)?
Is is the second part of double surname? Or nickname? Or
it means that he came >from Poland ("polyak" in Russian means polish man)
What means "was ommited"? I saw yet people in this census with the same
How it happens that he was ommited, but his children were recorder???

Next census (Revizskaya SKazka 1834) only adds puzzles:

Ios Zelmanovich KELMAN POLYAK [age in 1816 - 36 ] [age in 1834 - 54]

After 16 years we see the same man with a different family !!!
There is other name of his wife as well other names for children!
POLYAK already is written with a capital letter, as part of surname.

And where are his children >from previous census?

They are here, with their own families, but 2 >from them with surname POLYAK!!!
And one of them with surname KELMAN!

My question:
do you know same cases when one of children took one part of the surname,
while other took the another part.
Do you know reasons for this?

In 1850 census there are no puzzles and we see here the same family of
Leib KELMAN, but in the birth records we see the next puzzle:
in 1857 in the family of Gersh KELMAN, the son of Lejb was born a boy
Ios Shmul. We see here that the mother is recorder as Gudel Rukodel'nik.

My question:
What here means "Rukodel'nik"? Is it her original surname? Occupation
("rukodel'nik" in russian means needlewoman)? nickname?

Thank you!

P.S. If somebody is interesting in the whole records about KELMANs
that I receieved, tell me.
P.P.S. Also I have received records about KANTORs >from Novograd
Volynsk uyezd >from 1850 census. Unfortunatly there is the only source
of information about Novograd Volynsk uyezd.
No any other census or birth records were survived

Pavel Bernshtam
Searching for:

ITKIN - Kolyshki, Vitebsk uyead, Vitebsk gubernia; Kharkov,
BENIOMENSON - Bocheikovo, Lepel uyezd, Kharkov,
BERNSHTAM - Akimovka (Melitopol oblast), Melitopol, ALTSHULER -
Priazovskoe (Pokrovka)(Melitopol oblast) , Melitopol, Chausy (Mogilev gubernia)
KANTOR - Polonnoe (Volyn gubernia), Baranovka (Volyn gubernia), Zhitomir,
ZHURAHOV, ZURAHOV - Chervonnoe (Zhitomir uyezd), Verbovo (Skvir uyezd) , Zhitomir,
KELMAN - Chervonnoe (Zhitomir uyezd), Zhitomir