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Chiune Sugihara visa lists #general


Mark Halpern
 

Dear Jeanine:

Your great grandparents Emil and Martha GALLINER are not on the Sugihara
Visa list of 2139 people to whom he issued Japanese transit visas while
he was Vice Consul in Kaunas (Kovno) Lithuania. That list was made up
mostly of people with Polish nationality. However, the Joint
Distribution Committee Archive shows that Emil and Martha were in
Shanghai during and after the War

You stated that "visas issued by Chiune Sugihara in Germany." If your
great grandparents were German Jews, they may have survived the War in
Shanghai, but most German Jews traveled to Shanghai on ships leaving
from Italian ports such as Genoa and Trieste. Sugihara issued exit visas
in Lithuania and also some 33 visas while he was Japanese consul in
Prague.

I was able to find that Emil and Martha immigrated to America >from
Shanghai aboard the SS Marine Adder landing in San Francisco on
September 24, 1947. Emil was 66 born in Zinten, Germany and Martha was
61 born in Posen, Poland. They had visas for permanent residency issued
in Shanghai and their trip was paid for by AJDC (American Joint
Distribution Committee).

None of this information means that they did not have a Japanese transit
visa, but it is likely they arrived in Shanghai via a different route.
It is reported that Sugihara issued transit visas >from the hotel and
from the train as he was leaving Lithuania and it is also reported that
there were many forged "Sugihara" transit visas. Just the other day, I
heard his son Nobuki Sugihara venture a guess that there may have been
700 forged visas issued.

If you or any of your relatives have Emil or Martha's travel documents
they used to leave Europe to go to Shanghai, I would definitely like to
see them.

No matter how Emil and Martha got to Shanghai, this is a great escape
story and you should be proud.

Mark Halpern
Conshohocken, PA, USA

---
On 2019-05-26 09:05, hjhack@... hjhack@... wrote:

I am looking for the list of visas issued by Chiune Sugihara in Germany.
My great-grandparents Emil and Martha Galliner were recipients of these
visas.
Thank you. Jeanine Hack, Cape Town


Howard Hack <hjhack@...>
 

I am looking for the list of visas issued by Chiune Sugihara in Germany. My
great-grandparents Emil and Martha Galliner were recipients of these visas.
Thank you. Jeanine Hack, Cape Town


Marcel Apsel
 

Several times people mentioned Chiune Sugihara as savior of Jews staying in
or around Kovno (Kaunas). He is bestowed as a Righteous of the Nations by
Yad Vashem, which is really correct. But I see that most of the people
don't know the whole story about giving visas to Jewish refugees. The whole
story was triggered of by the Dutch consul of Kovno (Kaunas) Jan
Zwartendijk, who was approached by some Dutch Jews staying in and around
Kaunas. They asked the consul if he could issue visa for the Dutch Indies
in order to be able to get out of Europe. In fact you didn't need to get a
visa for the Dutch Indies; you needed only a permission of the
governor-general of the Dutch Indies, which on the visa was 'forgotten' to
be mentioned. Which such a visa the Russians gave permission to those Jews
to travel to Vladivostok, the far East of the Soviet Union. But to
continue then you needed a transit visa for Japan in order to continue and
there the Japanese consul Chiune Siguhara, was contacted; he accepted to
help refugees to escape Eastern Europe by issuing Japanese transit visa,
without informing his government (or maybe in a hidden way). About 2.000 to
2.500 got both visa and we suppose that more than 10.000 people were saved
by the help of Jan Zwartendijk and Chiune Sugihara. The most funny thing is
that both consuls never met. At the end no Jew ended up in the Dutch
Indies; most of them (if not all of them) ended up in Shangai were they
stayed until the end of Worl War II. After that they spread all over
around. Jan Zwartendijk was also honored by Yad Vashem after his death in
1976. The Dutch writer Jan Brokken wrote recently an extensive book about
Jan Zwartendijk (in Dutch) and hopefully for English readers it will be
translated one day into English.

Marcel Apsel
Antwerpen, Belgium


Mark Halpern
 

Marcel rightfully points out that Chiune Sugihara could not have saved the lives
of many Jewish refugees by himself and he wants you to know the whole story.

I have been studying the Jewish refugees who traveled east through
Russia and Japan to safe harbor along with their saviors for three years
now. I have been persuaded that three other Dutch citizens (two are Jewish) were
the catalysts for both Jan Zwartendijk and Chiune Sugihara
to issue their life saving visas. The story at
https://www.jta.org/2016/04/25/culture/how-my-grandmothers-chutzpah-helped-sugihara-rescue-thousands-of-jews
(MODERATOR: https://tinyurl.com/yyfpswt7 ) introduces you to Zwartendijk's boss, L.
P.J de Dekker, the Dutch Ambassador to the Baltic states with the embassy in Riga,
as well as Peppy Sternheim Lewin, a Jew born in Netherlands. This story, written by
Peppy's granddaughter, rings true to me.

The third Dutch citizen was the person who disseminated the value of the
Zwartendijk Curasao visa into every corner of the Jewish refugee
community in Lithuania. He was a Dutch student named Nathan Gutwirth,
who was attending a Yeshiva in Lithuania at the time.

So, what is the whole story? There are many "facts" about Sugihara and
the visas he wrote depending upon who is offering those facts. If you
read enough, you will be able to come to your own conclusion, but take
your's and everyone else's conclusion with a grain of salt. Even members
of the Sugihara family do not agree on the "facts."

What we know is that some 2,500 to 6,000 European Jews, mostly >from
Poland, survived the Holocaust because Sugihara, Zwartendijk, de Dekker,
and many others did the right thing and helped the Jews escape Lithunaia
to Japan and onward. One fact we do know is that nobody with the "Curacao visa"
ever landed in Curacao or any Dutch territory in the the Dutch West Indies.

Mark Halpern
Conshohocken, PA, USA

Marcel Apsel marcap@... wrote:

Several times people mentioned Chiune Sugihara as savior of Jews staying in
or around Kovno (Kaunas)...The whole story was triggered of by the Dutch consul of
Kovno (Kaunas) Jan Zwartendijk, who was approached by some Dutch Jews staying in
and around Kaunas. They asked the consul if he could issue visa for the Dutch
Indies in order to be able to get out of Europe...