Hungary SIG #Hungary Re: Yellow Star houses - h-sig digest: July 16, 2018 #hungary


ritamandl@...
 

Dear Judy and Susan I have recently received electronically >from Hungary th=
e following book.

Ingrid Carlberg Raoul Wallenberg The biography With an Introduction by Kofi=
a. annan
Translated >from the Swedish by=C2=A0 Ebba Segerberg.

In it the subject of the Yellow Star houses as well as the "protected" (ved=
et) houses are clearly explained, how they were organized and by whom. My c=
ousin Gabor Forgacs colaborated with the author and he had personal knowled=
ge and experience about this time in history. I highly recommend the book t=
o anyone who would like to understand "what went on" in 1944 as well as how=
Ralph Wallenberg organized and rescued many, including my parents, myself.

Rita Mandl

-----Original Message-----From: Judy Young-Drache judyyoung@... To: H=
-SIG Sent: Wed, Jul 18, 2018 12:15 amSubject: RE:[h-sig] Yellow Star houses=
- h-sig digest: July 16, 2018(I am replying to the list as I think this m=
ay be of interest to some others as well, or some others can provide additi=
onal information that would be useful to others.)Dear Michele,You make a st=
atement that is not quite correct: "this is not a Yellow Star house, but ra=
ther, Jews who are required to wear the Yellow Star are not permitted to li=
ve here" It's a little more complicated than that: it appears that Jews who=
had to wear the yellow star were in fact allowed to live in there. The doc=
ument lists all residents in the house by ownership or whether they are the=
main renters of the apartment. There is only one owner (who it seems owns =
the building) and she is not required to wear the yellow star. But of the r=
enters, there are two (including your grandfather) who are required to wea=
r the yellow star (ie. they are Jews). (And two apartments are empty becau=
se the owners have been "removed" - either forcibly moved out or had been a=
sked/told to leave.) There is no date that I can see on the document (just=
the year 1944) or any mention of whether the house was designated a yellow=
star house or not. As far as I know, >from about the middle of June 1944 th=
e city of Budapest designated certain apartment buildings in which only Jew=
s were supposed to live and these became known as Yellow Star houses becaus=
e a yellow star had to be fixed on the outside of the building. (This was p=
art of an effort to concentrate Jews for an eventual further deportation af=
ter the countryside was emptied of its Jews - this of course did not happen=
anymore as the Allies were beginning to win the war). But there were othe=
r buildings in which Jews lived and some of these also became known as Ye=
llow Star houses. Obviously it was a complicated thing to check and supervi=
se all buildings as to how many Jews lived in them and some could "hide" th=
eir Jewishness; although the authorities made an effort to find out - and =
that is why such forms as this one had to be filled in (interesting that th=
ey did not have to write on the form "Jew" but instead whether they had to =
wear the star or not...). The concierges had the role of declaring if the =
tenants were required to wear the yellow star (all Jews had to) or not. So =
some Jews were able to avoid being "detected" as Jews; they could bribe the=
concierge, etc. Your grandfather and family may have been able to hide fo=
r the remainder of the war (and of course it made little difference that th=
ey had converted...).There is a fair amount of information about the Yellow=
Star houses (and some has been shared on this list, eg the Open Society Ar=
chives had a project in 2014 with a list, map, and the history of these hou=
ses. ) By the way, Jews living in Yellow Star houses had to move into the=
Budapest ghetto in November of 1944 (the Hungarian Arrow Cross government =
which came to power in mid October 1944 was still hoping to get rid of the =
remaining Jews and killed many thousands of them between October and the l=
iberation of Budapest in Feb 1945).Hope you find more information...Best,Ju=
dyJudy Young Drache,Ottawa