Kalwaria, Poland #poland #general


Marcia Segal
 

Hello all,

I'm trying to understand an aspect of Polish history. In 1883 the town of Kalwaria, in Poland, was "degraded" (as one web site puts it), until 1919. What would this mean for the Jewish population? According to a passenger list, three of my relatives came to the US from Kalwaria (if the document is to be believed) in 1892. This suggests to me that, once they had the money, they got out because life was difficult for them as Jews. Does anyone have insights regarding this or any town that became "degraded?" Many thanks.

Sincerely,
Marcia Segal
(great-granddaughter of Kalwaria residents)


elkus@...
 

While I don't know about "degrading," Feviel ELKUS my GGF likely came from Kalwaria and I found this wonderful essay about the life of Jews there: 

 https://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/lita/lit1499.html

William Elkus
Los Angeles CA
Researching: ELKUS, ROTHENBERG, BONOWICZ, BRANISKI, ROSENTHAL, KIRSTEIN, ZAGOWSKI, PRENSKA, GRUN, BURDENOUK, LEVIT, BROITMAN, SINGER


Jill Whitehead
 

Kalwaria was part of Suwalki Gubernia in NE Poland until the WW1 Peace Settlement in 1919 when it went into Lithuania. This area was on the front line in both WW1 and WW2. Most emigrees left early because they were close to the Baltic. All my great grandparents left this area between 1865 and 1875 to go to the UK, following the 1863 Uprising, and enforced conscription of young men into the Tsar's Army. This early migration meant there were not many people left compared to before, and I should imagine the "degrading" may refer to that.

Jill Whitehead, Surrey, UK


Alexander Sharon
 

Degrading refers to the town that lost it's "city rights" and became a village. In Polish this is knowns known as "utrata praw miejskich".

Alexander Sharon


Sherri Bobish
 


Alexander,

Did "utrata praw miejskich" result from a city having a smaller population than previously, or were there political reasons?

Thank you,

Sherri Bobish


Krzysztof Witaszek
 

Hello
Kalwaria (after 1890 called Kalwaria Zebrzydowska)  lost its town privileges in 1896, so it could not effect your ancestors emigration in 1892. 
Town privilleges meant: self administration, possibility to organize markets and craftsman guilds and others.
I cannot tell what it meant in practice to the Jews.
See the brief article about the Kalwaria Zebrzydowska history 
 
Krzysztof Witaszek
Lublin
 


Alexander Sharon
 

Hi Sherri,

The reasons for the degradation were various, although you are correct, mainly economic (the settlements were small and the population worked mainly in agriculture), sometimes political (e.eg. during partitions, or after the suppression of January 1863 Uprising).

Town degradation process in Poland has ceased very recently, just during 70ies of the last century.

Sometime following degradation, town status has been reinstated and degraded again.

Below is the sample of towns in Galicia changing their civic status toward the end of 19th century (1896).
Follow sample of the first town listed: Bolechow
Established as town in 1612 changed to "small town" in 1784, in 1818 changed back to town, in 1868 changed to small town, in 1879 changed again to town, in 1896 back to small town (town parish), from 1933 again known as town, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine

1896

  • Bolechów (1612; 1784 >> miasteczko; 1818 >> miasto; 1868 >> miasteczko; 1879 >> miasto; 1896 >> miasteczko (gmina miejska); od 1933 znów miasto; IFUkraina)
  • Czchów (1355; 1818 >> miasteczko; 1879 >> miasto; 1896 >> miasteczko; od 2000 znów miasto; małopolskie)
  • Dobrotwór (?; 1784 >> miasteczko; 1879 >> miasto; 1896 >> miasteczko; od 1959 osiedle; LWUkraina)
  • Felsztyn (1380; 1855 >> miasteczko; 1879 >> miasto; 1896 >> miasteczko; od 1945 SkeliwkaLWUkraina)
  • Gdów (1784-1868 miasteczko; 1879-1896 miasto M; małopolskie)
  • Gliniany (1397; 1818 >> miasteczko; 1879 >> miasto; 1896 >> miasteczko (gmina miejska); od 1933 znów miasto; LWUkraina)
  • Krystynopol (1695; 1784 >> miasteczko; 1879 >> miasto; 1896 >> miasteczko; od 1951 znów miasto pod nazwą CzerwonogródLWUkraina) – do 1951 w Polsce
  • Krzywcze Górne (?; 1784 >> miasteczko; 1879 >> miasto; 1896 >> miasteczko; TPUkraina)
  • Leżajsk (1397; 1868 >> miasteczko; 1879 >> miasto; 1896 >> miasteczko; od 1933 znów miasto; podkarpackie)
  • Łańcut (1367; 1868 >> miasteczko; 1879 >> miasto; 1896 >> miasteczko; od 1933 znów miasto; podkarpackie)
  • Łysiec (1652 jako Moczara; 1784 >> miasteczko; 1879 >> miasto; 1896 >> miasteczko; od 19?? osiedle; IFUkraina)
  • Mikołajów nad Dniestrem (1578; 1784 >> miasteczko; 1868 >> miasto; 1896 >> miasteczko; 1910 >> miasto; 1914 >> miasteczko (gmina miejska); od 1933 znów miasto; LWUkraina)
  • Narol (1672 jako Florianów; 1784 >> miasteczko; 1879 >> miasto; 1896 >> miasteczko; od 1996 znów miasto; podkarpackie)
  • Oleszyce (1578; 1784 >> miasteczko; 1879 >> miasto; 1896 >> miasteczko; od 1989 znów miasto; podkarpackie)
  • Piwniczna (Zdrój) (1348; 1784 >> miasteczko; 1818 >> miasto; 1868 >> miasteczko; 1879 >> miasto; 1896 >> miasteczko; od 1933 znów miasto; małopolskie)
  • Przeworsk (1393; 1868 >> miasteczko; 1879 >> miasto; 1896 >> miasteczko; 1915 >> miasto; podkarpackie)
  • Skałat (1600 jako Dębno; 1784 >> miasteczko; 1818 >> miasto; 1868 >> miasteczko; 1879 >> miasto; 1896 >> miasteczko (gmina miejska); od 1933 znów miasto; TPUkraina)
  • Tartaków (1685; 1784 >> miasteczko; 1879 >> miasto; 1896 >> miasteczko; LWUkraina)
  • Zakliczyn (1558; 1818 >> miasteczko; 1879 >> miasto; 1896 >> miasteczko; od 2006 znów miasto; małopolskie)
  • Żmigród Nowy (1373; 1784 >> miasteczko; 1879 >> miasto; 1896 >> miasteczko; od 1968 nazwa Nowy Żmigródpodkarpackie)
  • Wojnicz (1369; 1868 >> miasteczko; 1880 >> miasto; 1896 >> miasteczko (gmina miejska); od 2007 znów miasto; małopolskie)
  • Załoźce (1511; 1784 >> miasteczko; 1818 >> miasto; 1868 >> miasteczko; 1879 >> miasto; 1896 >> miasteczko (gmina miejska); od 1933 znów miasto; TPUkraina)

Best,

Alexander Sharon


Alexander Sharon
 

Kalwaria Zabrzydowska was a smaller town in Wadowice region of Poland.
The proper Polish Kalwaria is known as Góra Kalwaria or Ger in Yiddish, located within Grójec district, some 20 miles distance from Warszawa. This was a place were Hasidic Gur (Ger) dynasty have resided.

Gora Kalwaria (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)

Polish Gora Kalwaria and Lithuanian Kalvarija had equal number of the Jewish residents, about 3,000.

Alexander Sharon
JGFF editor