Holocaust Survivors and Victims #holocaust

Hank Lobbenberg

Both of my grandmothers were killed in the camps (or en route). My paternal grandfather was beaten by a mob in July 1938 and died of his injuries in August 1938.
One of my aunts lived in Germany all of her life and never left. She was hidden. Both of my parents who were born in Germany, left as refugees in 1939.
What of those Jews who fled to Russia, Sweden or Shanghai?
The classifications may seem simple to some but no to me.

Henry (Hank) Lobbenberg
260 Heath St. W. Toronto, ON M5P 3L6

Shelley Mitchell

Regarding Shanghai, there are a couple of Facebook groups on this subject. One is “Shanghai Internees and Refugees.”

Shelley Mitchell, NYC


A dear friend of mine, now deceased, fled with his family from Austria to Cardiff, Wales, the same week the Germans arrived.  He was 9 years old and had two younger brothers.  The three were put into foster care for about a year while their father was in the Royal Army and their mother tried to find work and establish herself enough to take back her children.  

My friend was tremendously traumatized by the experience, even though he never set foot in a camp. Despite the fact that he was essentially a citizen of the world, who held British, Israeli and American passports and spoke six languages, he was only really at home in Israel. I consider him both a victim and a survivor.  

Do we really have to classify people as one or the other?
Barbara Sloan
Conway, SC