New Look at the Question of Sephardic and Ashkenazic Genetics #dna #sephardic


Adam Cherson
 

Greetings Genetic Researchers,

Some new genetic testing of 6 Ashkenazic males, 5 Ashkenazic females, and 1 Sephardic male permits me to make some preliminary observations on this conversation.

Here is a summary chart showing what I have found:



A) the predominant ancient origin of all groups is between 88.6% and 98% Near Eastern, B) the Sephardi cohort is characterized as having a larger proportion of Coastal Near Eastern genes (Central Levant) and a smaller proportion of Eurasian Steppe genes, C) all groups have roughly the same amount of Mountain Near Eastern genes (Northern Zagros and Transcaucasus Mountains). I would like to include a Sephardic female in this study but as of yet do not have a confirmed, representative sample.

Persons who are interested in studying their family's Sephardic and/or Ashkenazic origins using the technique shown above are welcomed to contact me privately (no genealogical or family tree history required).

 

--
Adam Cherson
Project Manager
Lost Tribes of Israel Project at FTDNA


Adam Cherson
 

PS: For those who pay attention to mtDNA haplogroups, among the Ashkenazic group are the following mtDNA haplogroups: HV5, K1a9 (2), U4c1, H7e, and K1a1b1a. Interestingly, three of these groups (K1a9, K1a1b1a1, and U4)  are mentioned in the Costa paper of 2014 ( DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms3543) which asserts that these are three main European lineages assimilated into the Ashkenazic population via exogamy. The current observations show that even if this assimilation of Eurooean lineages did occur, the autosomal genome remains from 89.27% to 89.55% Near Eastern in origin: the introgressions of European mtDNA lineages into the Ashkenazi population did not impact the complete genome of comtemporary Ashkenazi ma


m.rind@...
 

I think you're going to need a much larger sample size than six---and certainly more than just one, as in your sample of Sepharadim---to draw conclusions of any interest.

What, by the way, do you mean by "Sephardic" here? Do you mean Jews who forebears were in Sepharad before 1492, or are you including Jews from North Africa and the Near East?
--
Miles Rind
Cambridge, Mass.


Adam Cherson
 

No doubt. Preliminary findings are what may lead to conclusions of interest, no? The determination of Sephrdic is multi-factorial: ancestral geography, langauge, culture, names, religious practices, and needs to be established on a case by case basis. There is no single criterium I can give you. Self-identification as Sephardic is a good place to begin.
--
Adam Cherson


m.rind@...
 

I was not asking about your criteria; I was asking a more basic question about what you mean by the word "Sephardic." The word has a strict meaning of "Jews of medieval Iberia (=Sepharad) and their descendants," but it is also widely used to mean "Jews of Muslim countries and their descendants," which includes Sepharadim in the strict sense but also Jews of North Africa, the Near East, and Central Asia. Are you using the word in the strict sense or the broad sense?
--
Miles Rind
Cambridge, Mass.


Adam Cherson
 

I guess your definition of strict is the one that best explains my approach. However, keep in mind that many Sephardim migrated to North Africa and the Near East and may have lived in those regions for 500 years following their time in Sepharad. Be all of this as it may, the two Sfardim in my study have four Sephardic grandparents (in the strict sense).

To wrap this thread up, I would like to add thatI managed to locate 10 more Sephardic samples from the Eurogenes25 Database and have brought them into the chart:



it seems the categorical distinction is holding up: Sephardim show, on average, more of a coastal Near Eastern affinity and less of a Eurasian Steppe affinity.

This may be even clearer using a scatter diagram like this one:




In this chart the blue squares and the brown square are the ten samples from the EurogenesG25 Sephardic Database (if this image does not reproduce clearly enough here is the image file: https://1drv.ms/u/s!AuwT-4qnkJLBjkhgCdNravabf1JU?e=TrRfn8), The blue and red diamonds are the two Sephardic males from this study. The turquoise diamond is a person who is seeking to know whether he/she has Sephardic ancestry (the person most closely matches the brown square out of all the Sephardic samples, but I believe the brown square is mis-identified as being Sephardic in the G25 database and is likely to be Ashkenazic, or at least mostly Ashkenazic). The hollow circles and diamonds are the male and female Ashkenazim from this study (expect for the two diamonds in the lower left quadrant, who are Mizarahi (Syrian) Jews from this study). The triangles on the left are Early Iron Age Samples from sites in the Levant (Megiddo, Abel Maacah, and Ashkelon). This chart makes clear that the Sephardic samples are clustered closer to the Early Iron Age Samples and that the Ashkenazic samples are clustered to their right (which equates to being closer to the Eurasian Steppe samples from the previous chart)..

Using this system I believe the Sephardic ancestry of any person can be accurately evaluated, based on their placement relative to the two clusters. Persons of strong Sephardic ancestry will be to the left of the center vertical line. Persons of strong Ashkenazic ancestry will be in the midst of the Ashkenazic cluster on the right. Persons of mixed Sephardic-Ashkenazic ancestry will fall into the zone between the two clusters.



--
Adam Cherson


David Harrison
 


I had always been told and understood that the main splits relate to the Roman Empire in that the Ashkenazi were derived from Jews who had lived in the Western Roman Empire. The Romaniote Jews were from the Easter Roman Empire which continued for about 7 Centuries after the fall of Rome, until The Crusades.  The Sephardi Jews derived from those who had lived outside, but not very far from the original Roman Empire before the fall of Rome and thus included those who arrived in Spain with the Moors and with that connection went North into The low countries and to South America, some of whom were Pirates (being outside the RC church law) but did not include those from India and further Est nor those from Sub-Saharan Africa.
David Harrison
Birmingham, England
Searching in Poland before 1900 for  Herszkocwicz, Wreschinska (or similar)


From: main@... <main@...> on behalf of Adam Cherson <adam.cherson@...>
Sent: 10 August 2021 01:46
To: main@... <main@...>
Subject: Re: [JewishGen.org] New Look at the Question of Sephardic and Ashkenazic Genetics #dna #sephardic
 
I guess your definition of strict is the one that best explains my approach. However, keep in mind that many Sephardim migrated to North Africa and the Near East and may have lived in those regions for 500 years following their time in Sepharad. Be all of this as it may, the two Sfardim in my study have four Sephardic grandparents (in the strict sense).

To wrap this thread up, I would like to add thatI managed to locate 10 more Sephardic samples from the Eurogenes25 Database and have brought them into the chart:



it seems the categorical distinction is holding up: Sephardim show, on average, more of a coastal Near Eastern affinity and less of a Eurasian Steppe affinity.

This may be even clearer using a scatter diagram like this one:




In this chart the blue squares and the brown square are the ten samples from the EurogenesG25 Sephardic Database (if this image does not reproduce clearly enough here is the image file: https://1drv.ms/u/s!AuwT-4qnkJLBjkhgCdNravabf1JU?e=TrRfn8), The blue and red diamonds are the two Sephardic males from this study. The turquoise diamond is a person who is seeking to know whether he/she has Sephardic ancestry (the person most closely matches the brown square out of all the Sephardic samples, but I believe the brown square is mis-identified as being Sephardic in the G25 database and is likely to be Ashkenazic, or at least mostly Ashkenazic). The hollow circles and diamonds are the male and female Ashkenazim from this study (expect for the two diamonds in the lower left quadrant, who are Mizarahi (Syrian) Jews from this study). The triangles on the left are Early Iron Age Samples from sites in the Levant (Megiddo, Abel Maacah, and Ashkelon). This chart makes clear that the Sephardic samples are clustered closer to the Early Iron Age Samples and that the Ashkenazic samples are clustered to their right (which equates to being closer to the Eurasian Steppe samples from the previous chart)..

Using this system I believe the Sephardic ancestry of any person can be accurately evaluated, based on their placement relative to the two clusters. Persons of strong Sephardic ancestry will be to the left of the center vertical line. Persons of strong Ashkenazic ancestry will be in the midst of the Ashkenazic cluster on the right. Persons of mixed Sephardic-Ashkenazic ancestry will fall into the zone between the two clusters.



--
Adam Cherson